Measures and References: Sleep

Return to Sleep factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (Spilsbury et al., 2007): Measures daytime sleepiness in ages 11-17 years.


Alliance for Excellent Education. (2018). Science of adolescent learning: How body and brain development affect student learning. Retrieved from

Beebe, D. W., Field, J., Milller, M. M., Miller, L. E., & LeBlond, E. (2017). Impact of multi-night experimentally induced short sleep on adolescent performance in a simulated classroom. Sleep, 40(2), 1-8.

Cappuccio, F. P., Taggart, F. M., Kandala, N. B., Currie, A., Peile, E., Stranges, S., & Miller, M. A. (2008). Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep, 31(5), 619-626.

Carskadon, M. A., Wolfson, A. R., Acebo, C., Tzischinsky, O., & Seifer, R. (1998). Adolescent sleep patterns, circadian timing, and sleepiness at a transition to early school days. Sleep, 21(8), 871-881.

Cohen-Zion, M., Shabi, A., Levy, S., Glasner, L., & Wiener, A. (2016). Effects of partial sleep deprivation on information processing speed in adolescence. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22(4), 388-398.

DuBois, D. L., Felner, R. D., Brand, S., Phillips, R. S. C., & Lease, A. M. (1996). Early adolescent self-esteem: A developmental-ecological framework and assessment strategy. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 543-579.

Fredriksen, K., Rhodes, J., Reddy, R., & Way, N. (2004). Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years. Child Development, 75(1), 84-95.

Hale, L., & Guan, S. (2015). Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 21, 50-58.

Koenig, K. P., & Rudney, S. G. (2010). Performance challenges for children and adolescents with difficulty processing and integrating sensory information: A systematic review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(3), 430-442.

Kovacs, M. (1989). Affective disorders in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 44, 209-215.

Matricciani, L., Olds, T., & Petkov, J. (2012). In search of lost sleep: Secular trends in the sleep time of school-aged children and adolescents. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16(3), 203-211.

Marco, C. A., Wolfson, A. R., Sparling, M., & Azuaje, A. (2012). Family socioeconomic status and sleep patterns of young adolescents. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 10(1), 70-80.

National Sleep Foundation. (2014) 2014 Sleep in America Poll - Sleep in the Modern Family: Summary of Findings. Arlington, VA: National Sleep Foundation.

O'Brien, E. M., & Mindell, J. A. (2005). Sleep and risk-taking behavior in adolescents. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 3(3), 113-133.

Owens, J. A., Dearth-Wesley, T., Lewin, D., Gioia, G., & Whitaker, R. C. (2016). Self-regulation and sleep duration, sleepiness, and chronotype in adolescents. Pediatrics, e20161406.

Randazzo, A. C., Muehlbach, M. J., Schweitzer, P. K., & Walsh, J. K. (1998). Cognitive function following acute sleep restriction in children ages 10-14. Sleep, 21(8), 861-868.

Rasch, B., & Born, J. (2013). About sleep's role in memory. Physiological Reviews, 93(2), 681-766.

Sadeh, A. (1996). Stress, trauma, and sleep in children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 5, 685-700.

Sadeh, A., Gruber, R., & Raviv, A. (2002). Sleep, neurobehavioral functioning, and behavior problems in school‐age children. Child Development, 73(2), 405-417.

Spilsbury, J. C., Drotar, D., Rosen, C. L., & Redline, S. (2007). The Cleveland adolescent sleepiness questionnaire: A new measure to assess excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 3(06), 603-612.

Steenari, M. R., Vuontela, V., Paavonen, E. J., Carlson, S., Fjallberg, M., & Aronen, E. T. (2003). Working memory and sleep in 6-to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(1), 85-92.

Troxel, W. M., Shih, R. A., Ewing, B., Tucker, J. S., Nugroho, A., & D'Amico, E. J. (2017). Examination of neighborhood disadvantage and sleep in a multi-ethnic cohort of adolescents. Health & Place, 45, 39-45.