Measures and References: Sleep

Return to Sleep factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (Owens et al., 2000): A parent questionnaire that measures Sleep behaviors in children aged four to 12


Beccuti, G., & Pannain, S. (2011). Sleep and obesity. _Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(_4), 402-412.

Cappuccio, F. P., Taggart, F. M., Kandala, N., Currie, A., Peile, E., Stranges, S., & Miller, M. A. (2008). Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep, 31(5), 619-626.

Cho, M., Hons, B., Quach, J., Anderson, P., Mensah, F., Wake, M., & Roberts, G. (2015). Poor sleep and lower working memory in grade 1 children: Cross-sectional, population-based study. Academic Pediatrics, 15(1), 111-116.

El-Sheikh, M., Bagley, E. J., Keiley, M., Elmore-Staton, L., Chen, E., & Buckhalt, J. A. (2013). Economic adversity and children's sleep problems: Multiple indicators and moderation of effects. Health Psychology, 32(8), 849.

Fallone, G., Acebo, C., Seifer, R., & Carskadon, M. A. (2005). Experimental restriction of sleep opportunity in children: effects on teacher ratings. Sleep, 28(12), 1561-1567.

Gruber, R., Somerville, G., Enros, P., Paquin, S., Kestler, M., & Gillies-Poitras, E. (2014). Sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration ) of healthy school-age children is associated with grades in math and languages. Sleep Medicine, 15(12), 1517-1525.

Hale, L., & Guan, S. (2015). Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 21, 50-58.

Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., DonCarlos, L., … Katz, E.S. (2015). National Sleep Foundation's sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary. Sleep Health, 1(1), 40-43.

Koenig, K. P., & Rudney, S. G. (2010). Performance challenges for children and adolescents with difficulty processing and integrating sensory information: A systematic review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(3), 430-442.

Lehmkuhl, G., Wiater, A., Mitschke, A., & Fricke-Oerkermann, L. (2008). Sleep disorders in children beginning school: Their causes and effects. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 105(47), 809-814.

Matricciani, L., Olds, T., & Petkov, J. (2012). In search of lost sleep: Secular trends in the sleep time of school-aged children and adolescents. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16(3), 203-211.

National Sleep Foundation. (2014). 2014 Sleep in America Poll - Sleep in the Modern Family: Summary of Findings.

Owens, J. A., Spirito, A., & McGuinn, M. (2000). The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ): Psychometric properties of a survey instrument for school-aged children. Sleep, 23(8), 1043-1052.

Randazzo, A. C., Muehlbach, M. J., Schweitzer, P. K., & Walsh, J. K. (1998). Cognitive function following acute sleep restriction in children ages 10-14. Sleep, 21(8), 861-868.

Rasch, B., & Born, J. (2013). About sleep's role in memory. Physiological Reviews, 93(2), 681-766.

Sadeh, A. (1996). Stress, trauma, and sleep in children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 5, 685-700.

Sadeh, A., Gruber, R., & Raviv, A. (2002). Sleep, neurobehavioral functioning, and behavior problems in school‐age children. Child Development, 73(2), 405-417.

Steenari, M. R., Vuontela, V., Paavonen, E. J., Carlson, S., Fjallberg, M., & Aronen, E. T. (2003). Working memory and sleep in 6-to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(1), 85-92.