Measures and References: Social Awareness & Relationship Skills

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Assessment of Quality of Life (Richardson et al., 2014): Self-report questionnaire to assess social awareness and adults' sense of belonging

Interpersonal Communication Competence Scale (Rubin & Martin, 1994): Self-report questionnaire to assess different dimensions of empathy, expressiveness, and supportiveness.


Aite, A., Berthoz, A., Vidal, J., Roell, M., Zaoui, M., Houde, O., & Borst, G. (2016). Taking a third-person perspective requires inhibitory control: Evidence from a developmental negative priming study. Child Development, 87(6), 1825-1840.

Balatti, J., & Falk, I. (2002). Socioeconomic contributions of adult learning to community: A social capital perspective. Adult Education Quarterly, 52(4), 281-298.

Boud, D., & Middleton, H. (2003). Learning from others at work: Communities of practice and informal learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(5), 194-202.

Carlson, R., Padron, K., & Andrews, C. (2018). Evidence-based instructional strategies for adult learners: A review of the literature. Codex (2150-086X), 4(4), 29-47.

Comings, J. P. (2008). Student persistence in adult literacy and numeracy programs. In Tracking adult literacy and numeracy skills (pp. 180-196). Routledge.

Diep, N. A., Cocquyt, C., Zhu, C., & Vanwing, T. (2017). Online interaction quality among adult learners: The role of sense of belonging and perceived learning benefits. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 16(2), 71-78.

Eğeci, İ. S., & Gençoz, T. (2006). Factors associated with relationship satisfaction: Importance of communication skills. Contemporary Family Therapy, 28(3), 383-391.

Etelapelto, A., & Lahti, J. (2008). The resources and obstacles of creative collaboration in a long-term learning community. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3(3), 226-240.

Eriks-Brophy, A., Durieux-Smith, A., Olds, J., Fitzpatrick, E. M., Duquette, C., & Whittingham, J. (2012). Communication, academic, and social skills of young adults with hearing loss. The Volta Review, 112(1), 5-35.

Field, J. (2011). Adult learning, health and well-being-changing lives. Adult Learner, 13-25.

Holtgraves, T. (2005). Social psychology, cognitive psychology, and linguistic politeness. Journal of Politeness Research, 1(1), 73-93.

Lewin-Jones, J., & Mason, V. (2014). Understanding style, language and etiquette in email communication in higher education: a survey. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 19(1), 75-90.

Markow, W., Liu, P. C., & Hughes, D. (2020). The new foundational skills of the digital economy: Developing the professionals of the future. Burning Glass Technologies.

Mar, R. A., Oatley, K., & Peterson, J. B. (2009). Exploring the link between reading fiction and empathy: Ruling out individual differences and examining outcomes. Communications, 34(4), 407-428.

Mick, P., Kawachi, I., & Lin, F. R. (2014). The association between hearing loss and social isolation in older adults. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 150(3), 378-384.

Miller, K. I. (2007). Compassionate communication in the workplace: Exploring processes of noticing, connecting, and responding. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 35(3), 223-245.

Norton, B., & Toohey, K. (2011). Identity, language learning, and social change. Language teaching, 44(4), 412-446.

Richardson, J., Iezzi, A., Khan, M. A., & Maxwell, A. (2014). Validity and reliability of the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-8D multi-attribute utility instrument. The Patient-Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, 7(1), 85-96.

Rubin, R. B., & Martin, M. M. (1994). Development of a measure of interpersonal communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 11(1), 33-44.

Spencer, S. J., Logel, C., & Davies, P. G. (2016). Stereotype threat. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 415-437.

St. Clair, R. (2008). Reading, writing, and relationships: Human and social capital in family literacy programs. Adult Basic Education and Literacy Journal, 2, 84-93.

Torgerson, C. N., Love, H. A., & Vennum, A. (2018). The buffering effect of belonging on the negative association of childhood trauma with adult mental health and risky alcohol use. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 88, 44-50.

Tsai, H. Y. S., Shillair, R., & Cotten, S. R. (2017). Social support and "playing around" an examination of how older adults acquire digital literacy with tablet computers. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 36(1), 29-55.

Yang, C. C., Tsai, I. C., Kim, B., Cho, M. H., & Laffey, J. M. (2006). Exploring the relationships between students' academic motivation and social ability in online learning environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 9(4), 277-286.