Measures and References: Social Supports

Return to Social Supports factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Child and Adolescent Social Support scale (CASSS) (Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000): Assessment of a student's perceived Social Supports from parents, teachers, classmates, and school for students in third to twelfth grades


Alisic, E., Zalta, A. K., Van Wesel, F., Larsen, S. E., Hafstad, G. S., Hassanpour, K., & Smid, G. E. (2014). Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed children and adolescents: meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204(5), 335-340.

Antia, S. D., Stinson, M. S., & Gaustad, M. G. (2002). Developing membership in the education of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in inclusive settings. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(3), 214-229.

Fantuzzo, J. W., & Hampton, V. R. (2000). Penn Interactive Peer Play Scale: A parent and teacher rating system for young children. In K. Gitlin-Weiner, A. Sandgrund, & C. Schaefer (Eds.), Play Diagnosis and Assessment (2nd edition) (pp. 599-620). New York, NY: Wiley.

Goodman, R., Meltzer, H., & Bailey, V. (1998). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A pilot study on the validity of the self-report version. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 7(3), 125-130.

Gooren, E. M., van Lier, P. A., Stegge, H., Terwogt, M. M., & Koot, H. M. (2011). The development of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early elementary school children: The role of peer rejection. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(2), 245-253.

Hartas, D. (2012). Children's social behaviour, language and literacy in early years. Oxford Review of Education, 38(3), 357-376.

Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the social support scale for children. Denver, CO: University of Denver.

Johnson, K. F. (2013). The cumulative effect of hyperactivity and peer relationships on reading comprehension. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 2(1), 98-102.

Kim, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Longitudinal pathways linking child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer relations, and psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(6), 706-716.

Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2006). Social support as a buffer in the relationship between socioeconomic status and academic performance. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(4), 375-395.

Malecki, C. K., Demaray, M. K., & Elliott, S. N. (2000). The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University.

Rouse, H. L., & Fantuzzo, J. W. (2006). Validity of the dynamic indicators for basic early literacy skills as an indicator of early literacy for urban kindergarten children. School Psychology Review, 35(3), 341-355.

Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2008). Gender differences in the relationship between perceived social support and student adjustment during early adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 496-514.