Measures and References: Socioeconomic Status

Return to Socioeconomic Status factor page.

Measures

Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

SES Measurements (Berzofsky et al., 2014): Several measurements can be used when determining SES. Typically, household income, parent education, and occupation are all considered. Sometimes researchers choose to use a student's individual SES, but they may also use an aggregated SES based on the school the student attends.

References

Achenbach, T. M. (2005). Manual for the adult self report and adult behavior checklist. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.

Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.

American Psychological Association, Task Force on Socioeconomic Status. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on Socioeconomic Status. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Basch, C. E. (2011). Vision and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. Journal of School Health, 81(10), 599-605.

Berzofsky, M., Smiley-McDonald, H., Moore, A., & Krebs, C. (2014). Measuring socioeconomic status (SES) in the NCVS: Background, options, and recommendations. Report. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Bishop, D. (1982). TROG: Test for Reception of Grammar. England: Medical Research Council.

Caldwell, B., & Bradley, R.H. (2005). HOME inventory administration manual, standard edition. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.

D'angiulli, A., Herdman, A., Stapells, D., & Hertzman, C. (2008). Children's event-related potentials of auditory selective attention vary with their socioeconomic status. Neuropsychology, 22(3), 293-300.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: PPVT-4A. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson.

Farah, M. J., Shera, D. M., Savage, J. H., Betancourt, L., Giannetta, J. M., Brodsky, N., … E.K., Hurt, H. (2006). Childhood poverty: Specific associations with neurocognitive development. Brain Research, 1110, 166-174.

Franzini, L., Taylor, W., Elliott, M. N., Cuccaro, P., Tortolero, S. R., Gilliland, M.J., … Schuster, M. A. (2010). Neighborhood characteristics favorable to outdoor physical activity: Disparities by socioeconomic and racial/ethnic composition. Health & Place, 16(2), 267-274.

Ganzeboom, H.B.G., de Graaf, P.M., Treiman, D.J., & de Leeuw, J. (1992). A standard International Socio-Economic Index of occupational status. Social Science Research, 21(1), 1-56.

Golden, C.J. (1978). Stroop Color and Word Test: A manual for clinical and experimental uses. Chicago: Stoelting Co.

Gonzales, N. A., Tein, J., Sandler, I. N., & Friedman, R. J. (2001). On the limits of coping: Interaction between stress and coping for inner-city adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 372-395.

Haskins, R., Greenberg, M., & Fremstad, S. (2004). Federal policy for immigrant children: Room for common ground? (Policy Brief). The Future of Children, 14(2), 2-6.

Heppt, B., Haag, N., Bohme, K., & Stanat, P. (2015). The role of academic‐language features for reading comprehension of language‐minority students and students from low‐SES families. Reading Research Quarterly, 50(1), 61-82.

Kieffer, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status, English proficiency, and late-emerging reading difficulties. Educational Researcher, 39(6), 484-486.

Kirkpatrick, S. I., McIntyre, L., & Potestio, M. L. (2010). Child hunger and long-term adverse consequences for health. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(8), 754-762.

Krashen, S. (2013). Access to books and time to read versus the Common Core State Standards and tests. English Journal, 103(2), 21-29.

Krebs-Smith, S. M., Guenther, P. M., Subar, A. F., Kirkpatrick, S. I., & Dodd, K. W. (2010). Americans do not meet federal dietary recommendations. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(10), 1832-1838.

Lacour, M., & Tissington, L. D. (2011). The effects of poverty on academic achievement. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(7), 522-527.

Leach, J. M., Scarborough, H. S., & Rescorla, L. (2003). Late-emerging reading disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 211-224.

Lupien, S. J., King, S., Meaney, M. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2001). Can poverty get under your skin? Basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in children from low and high socioeconomic status. Development and Psychopathology, 13(3), 653-676.

MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health. (2000). John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health Sociodemographic Questionnaire.

Moats, L., Foorman, B., & Taylor, P. (2006). How quality of writing instruction impacts high-risk fourth graders' writing. Reading and Writing, 19(4), 363-391.

Santiago, C. D., Wadsworth, M. E., & Stump, J. (2011). Socioeconomic status, neighborhood disadvantage, and poverty-related stress: Prospective effects on psychological syndromes among diverse low-income families. Journal of Economic Psychology, 32(2), 218-230.

Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: The roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 120-132.

Wechsler, D. (1994). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd ed.). London: Psychological Corporation.