Measures and References: Speed of Processing

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (Schrank, Mather, & McGrew, 2014): Contains three subtests that examine Speed of Processing: Number-Pattern Matching, Pair Cancellation, and Letter-Pattern Matching


Denckla, M. B., & Rudel, R. (1974). Rapid "automatized" naming of pictured objects, colors, letters and numbers by normal children. Cortex, 10(2), 186-202.

Fry, A., & Hale, S. (1996). Processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence: Evidence for developmental cascade. Psychological Science, 7(4), 237-241.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Bailey, D. H. (2012). Mathematical cognition deficits in children with learning disabilities and persistent low achievement: A five-year prospective study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(1), 206-223.

Kail, R., & Salthouse, T. A. (1994). Processing speed as a mental capacity. Acta Psychologica, 86(2-3), 199-225.

Koponen, T., Salmi, P., Eklund, K., & Tuija, A. (2012). Counting and RAN: Predictors of arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology.

McAuley, T., & White, D. (2012). A latent variables examination of processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory during typical development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(3), 453-468.

Montgomery, J. W., & Windsor, J. (2007). Examining the language performances of children with and without specific language impairment: Contributions of phonological short-term memory and speed of processing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(3), 778-797.

Mulder, H., Pitchford, N. J., & Marlow, N. (2010). Processing speed and working memory underlie academic attainment in very preterm children. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 95, F267-F272.

Sheppard, L. D., & Vernon, P. (2008). Intelligence and speed of information- processing: A review of 50 years of research. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(3), 535-551.

Simmons, F. R., & Singleton, C. (2008). Do weak phonological representations impact on arithmetic development? A review of research into arithmetic and dyslexia. Dyslexia, 14(2), 77-94.

Swanson, L., & Kim, K. (2007). Working memory, short-term memory, and naming speed as predictors of children's mathematical performance. Intelligence, 35, 151-168.

Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of Cognitive Abilities. Itaska, IL: Riverside Publishing.