Measures and References: Stereotype Threat

Return to Stereotype Threat factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Diagnostic Comparisons (Steele & Aronson, 1995): Stereotype Threat is typically measured by determining the impact that activating a perceived threat has on learners' test performance, for example, by telling learners that their performance is diagnostic of their abilities. If students in the "non-threat" group perform better than the students in the "threat" group, this is evidence that Stereotype Threat has negatively influenced performance.


Aronson, J., Fried, C.B., and Good, C. (2001). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 113-125.

Baker, C. N. (2013). Social support and success in higher education: The influence of on-campus support on African American and Latino college students. The Urban Review, 45(5), 632-650.

Beilock, S. L., Rydell, R. J., & McConnell, A. R. (2007). Stereotype threat and working memory: mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136(2), 256.

Bowe, F. G., McMahon, B. T., Chang, T., & Louvi, I. (2005). Workplace discrimination, deafness and hearing impairment: The national EEOC ADA research project. Work, 25(1), 19-25.

Croizet, J. C., Despres, G., Gauzins, M. E., Huguet, P., Leyens, J. P., & Meot, A. (2004). Stereotype threat undermines intellectual performance by triggering a disruptive mental load. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(6), 721-731.

Drayton, B. E. (2012). Literacy and identity: Reflections of six African American males in an adult literacy program [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Pennsylvania State University.

Deemer, E. D., Thoman, D. B., Chase, J. P., & Smith, J. L. (2014). Feeling the threat: Stereotype threat as a contextual barrier to women's science career choice intentions. Journal of Career Development, 41(2), 141-158.

Ginsburg, H. J., Cameron, R., Mendez, R. V., & Westhoff, M. (2016). Helping others use social media: age stereotypes when estimating learner's success. Psychology, Society, & Education, 8(1), 1-12.

Grotluschen, A., Riekmann, W., & Buddeberg, K. (2016). Stereotypes versus Research Results Regarding Functionally Illiterate Adults. Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung, 105.

Hess, T.M., Auman, C., Colcombe, S.J., and Rahhal, T.A. (2003). The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 58(1), P3-P11.

Hollis-Sawyer, L. (2011). A math-related decrement stereotype threat reaction among older nontraditional college learners. Educational Gerontology, 37(4), 292-306.

Maloney, E. A., Schaeffer, M. W., & Beilock, S. L. (2013). Mathematics anxiety and stereotype threat: shared mechanisms, negative consequences and promising interventions. Research in Mathematics Education, 15(2), 115-128.

May, A. L., & Stone, C. A. (2010). Stereotypes of individuals with learning disabilities: Views of college students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(6), 483-499.

McKay, P. F., Doverspike, D., Bowen-Hilton, D., & Martin, Q. D. (2002). Stereotype threat effects on the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices scores of African Americans. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 767-787.

Mrazek, M. D., Chin, J. M., Schmader, T., Hartson, K. A., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2011). Threatened to distraction: Mind-wandering as a consequence of stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(6), 1243-1248.

Phinney, J.S., and Haas, K. (2003). The process of coping among ethnic minority first-generation college freshman: A narrative approach. The Journal of Social Psychology, 143(6), 707-726.

Rogers, R., & Fuller, C. (2007). As if you heard it from your momma": Redesigning histories of participation with literacy education in an adult education class. Reframing sociocultural research on literacy: Identity, agency, and power, 75-114.

Rogers, R. (2004). Storied selves: A critical discourse analysis of adult learners' literate lives. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(3), 272-305.

Russo, M., Islam, G., & Koyuncu, B. (2016). Non-native accents and stigma: How self-fulfilling prophesies can affect career outcomes. Human Resource Management Review, 27(3), 507-520.

Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychological Review, 115(2), 336-356.

Silverman, A. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2014). Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: How coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(10), 1330-1340.

Spencer, S. J., Logel, C., & Davies, P. G. (2016). Stereotype threat. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 415-437.

Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797.

Wanberg, C. R. (2012). The individual experience of unemployment. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 369-396.

Ward, K. (2013). Stereotypes and their effects on first-generation college students. Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado, 3(2), 7.