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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.
_Math Diagnostic Comparisons_: Stereotype threat is typically measured by comparing a group of students vulnerable to Stereotype Threat, who take a math test and are told the test is diagnostic of their math abilities, to a group of students who are also vulnerable to Stereotype Threat and are told the test is non-diagnostic. If students in the "non-threat" group perform better than the students in the "threat" group this is evidence that Stereotype Threat has negatively influenced performance.
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Beilock, S. L., Rydell, R. J., & McConnell, A. R. (2007). Stereotype threat and working memory: Mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136(2), 256-276.
Copur-Gencturk, Y., Cimpian, J. R., Lubienski, S. T., & Thacker, I. (2020). Teachers' bias against the mathematical ability of female, Black, and Hispanic students. Educational Researcher, 49(1), 30-43.
Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). Math-gender stereotypes in elementary school children. Child Development, 82(3), 766-779.
Lummis, M., & Stevenson, H.W. (1990). Gender differences in beliefs and achievement: A cross-cultural study. Developmental Psychology, 26, 254-263.
Maloney, E. A., Schaeffer, M. W., & Beilock, S. L. (2013). Mathematics anxiety and stereotype threat: shared mechanisms, negative consequences and promising interventions. Research in Mathematics Education, 15(2), 115-128.
McKown, C., & Weinstein, R.S. (2003). The development and consequences of stereotype-consciousness in middle childhood. Child Development, 74, 498-515.
Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Sriram, N., Lindner, N. M., Devos, T., Ayala, A., ... & Kesebir, S. (2009). National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(26), 10593-10597.
Schmader, T. (2010). Stereotype threat deconstructed. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 14-18.
The Education Trust. (August, 2020). Social, emotional, and academic development through an equity lens. Washington, DC.
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