Measures and References: Syntax

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) (Wiig, Secord, & Semel, 2005): Measures language skills, including Syntax, in children six to 21 years old


Beers, S. F., & Nagy, W. E. (2011). Writing development in four genres from grades three to seven: Syntactic complexity and genre differentiation. Reading and Writing, 24(2), 183-202.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Cook, C. R., & Nagy, W. (2017). Relationships of attention and executive functions to oral language, reading, and writing skills and systems in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(4), 434-449.

Bialystok, E., & Barac, R. (2012). Emerging bilingualism: Dissociating advantages for metalinguistic awareness and executive control. Cognition, 122(1), 67-73.

Bialystok, E., Peets, K. F., & Moreno, S. (2014). Producing bilinguals through immersion education: Development of metalinguistic awareness. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(1), 177-191.

Bishop, D. V. M. (2003). Test for Reception of Grammar-2. London: The Psychological Corporation.

Boons, T., De Raeve, L., Langereis, M., Peeraer, L., Wouters, J., & Van Wieringen, A. (2013). Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(6), 2008-2022.

Connor, C. M., Radach, R., Vorstius, C., Day, S. L., McLean, L., & Morrison, F. J. (2015). Individual differences in fifth graders' literacy and academic language predict comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19(2), 114-134.

Delis, D. C., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J. H. (2001). Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Drijbooms, E., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2017). How executive functions predict development in syntactic complexity of narrative writing in the upper elementary grades. Reading and Writing, 30(1), 209-231.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2005). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III-NL. Nederlandse versie Liesbeth Schlichting. Handleiding. Amsterdam: Harcourt Test Publishers.

Dunn, L.M., Dunn, L.M., & Whetton, C.W. (1997). The British Picture Vocabulary Scale (2nd ed.). Windsor, England: NFER-Nelson.

Embick, D., & Noyer, R. (2007). Distributed morphology and the syntax/morphology interface. The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Interfaces, 289-324.

Filippi, R., Morris, J., Richardson, F. M., Bright, P., Thomas, M. S., Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Marian, V. (2015). Bilingual children show an advantage in controlling verbal interference during spoken language comprehension. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(3), 490-501.

Ganzeboom, H.B.G., de Graaf, P.M., Treiman, D.J., & de Leeuw, J. (1992). A standard International Socio-Economic Index of occupational status. Social Science Research, 21(1), 1-56.

Geelhoed, J. W., & Reitsma, P. (1999). PI-dictee. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Heppt, B., Haag, N., Bohme, K., & Stanat, P. (2015). The role of academic‐language features for reading comprehension of language‐minority students and students from low‐SES families. Reading Research Quarterly, 50(1), 61-82.

Hutchinson, J. M., Whiteley, H. E., Smith, C. D., & Connors, L. (2003). The developmental progression of comprehension‐related skills in children learning EAL. Journal of Research in Reading, 26(1), 19-32.

Kort, W., Schittekatte, M., & Compaan, E. (2010). CELF-4-NL j Test voor diagnose en evaluatie van taalproblemen (3rd ed.). Amsterdam: Pearson.

Koutsoftas, A. D., & Gray, S. (2012). Comparison of narrative and expository writing in students with and without language-learning disabilities. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43(4), 395-409.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K., & Dreyer, L. G. (2002). Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Fourth Edition Technical Report for Forms S & T. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Martin, N. A., & Brownell, R. (2011). Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.

Norbury, C. F. (2004). Factors supporting idiom comprehension in children with communication disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(5), 1179-1193.

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2002). Does impaired grammatical comprehension provide evidence for an innate grammar module? Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 247-268

Santi, A., & Grodzinsky, Y. (2007). Working memory and syntax interact in Broca's area. Neuroimage, 37(1), 8-17.

Semel, E.M., Wiig, E.H., & Secord, W. (2000). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (3rd UK ed.). London: The Psychological Corporation.

Snow, C. E., & Uccelli, P. (2009). The challenge of academic language. In D. R. Olson & N. Torrance (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of literacy (pp. 112-133). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Van Waelvelde, H., De Mey, B., & Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M. (2008). Handleiding SOS. Systematische opsporing van schrijfmotorische problemen. Ghent: Revalidatiewetenschappen en Kinesitherapie Gent.

Wiig, E. H., Secord, W. A., & Semel, E. (2013). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals: CELF-5. Pearson.