Measures and References: Vision

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Vision Screening (American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014): Assesses visual acuity using an eye chart, where the student identifies letters with both eyes and each eye individually at varying distances

Extensive Vision Evaluations (American Optometric Association, 2019): Thoroughly test all aspects of Vision, including tests of visual field, binocular vision, convergence, and accommodation


American Optometric Association. (2019). Limitations of Vision Screening Programs. Retrieved from:

Basch, C. E. (2011). Vision and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. Journal of School Health, 81(10), 599-605.

Bullier, J. (2001). Integrated model of visual processing. Brain Research Reviews, 36(2-3), 96-107.

Desimone, R., & Duncan, J. (1995). Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 18(1), 193-222.

Glewwe, P., Park, A., & Zhao, M. (2016). A better vision for development: Eyeglasses and academic performance in rural primary schools in China. Journal of Development Economics, 122, 170-182.

Gudgel, D. (2014). Eye Screening for children. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Retrieved from:

Lieberman, L. J., & McHugh, E. (2001). Health-related fitness of children who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(5), 272-287.

Rosner, J., & Rosner, J. (1987). Comparison of visual characteristics in children with and without learning difficulties. Optometry & Vision Science, 64(7), 531-533.

Ungar, S., Blades, M., & Spencer, C. (1996). The construction of cognitive maps by children with visual impairments. In The Construction of Cognitive Maps (pp. 247-273). Springer, Dordrecht.

Verweyen, P. (2004). Measuring vision in children. Community Eye Health, 17(50), 27-29.