Measures and References: Visual Processing

Return to Visual Processing factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) (Rey, 1941): Evaluates Visual Spatial Processing and memory for visual-spatial information

Computer-Based Vision Tasks (Boros et al., 2016): Asks students to remember or respond to the spatial position or a specific visual characteristic of either letters/words or non-linguistic symbols (often important to include so language skills do not impact scores)

The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration - 6th Edition (Beery et al., 2010): Assesses visual-motor integration, including supplemental tests to assess visual perception and motor coordination, for individuals between 2-100 years old


Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417-423.

Beery, K. E., Buktenica, N. A., & Beery, N. A. (2010). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: Administration, scoring, and teaching manual (6th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: NSC Pearson.

Boros, M., Anton, J. L., Pech-Georgel, C., Grainger, J., Szwed, M., & Ziegler, J. C. (2016). Orthographic processing deficits in developmental dyslexia: Beyond the ventral visual stream. NeuroImage, 128, 316-327.

Bosse, M. L., Chaves, N., Largy, P., & Valdois, S. (2015). Orthographic learning during reading: The role of whole‐word visual processing. Journal of Research in Reading, 38(2), 141-158.

Bullier, J. (2001). Integrated model of visual processing. Brain Research Reviews, 36(2-3), 96-107.

Gardner, M. F. (1982). Test of Visual Perceptual Skills. Seattle, WA: Special Child Publications.

Gordon, M. (1991). Instruction manual for the Gordon Diagnostic System, model III-R. DeWitt, New York: Gordon Systems, Inc.

May, P. (2002). HSP 1-9: Diagnose orthografischer Kompetenz - Handbuch [HSP 1-9: Analysis of orthographic ability - Manual]. Hamburg, Germany: Verlag für pädagogische Medien.

Rey, A. (1941). L'examen psychologique dans les cas d'encephalopathie traumatique. (Les Problems). Archives de Psychologie, 28, 286-340.

Shinn-Cunningham, B. G. (2008). Object-based auditory and visual attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(5), 182-186.

Tseng, M. H., & Chow, S. M. (2000). Perceptual-motor function of school-age children with slow handwriting speed. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(1), 83-88.

Tseng, M. H., & Hsueh, I. P. (1997). Performance of school-aged children on a Chinese Handwriting Speed Test. Occupational Therapy International, 4, 294-303.