Measures and References: Visual Processing

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration - 6th Edition (Beery et al., 2010): Assesses visual-motor integration, including supplemental tests to assess visual perception and motor coordination, for individuals from two to 100 years old


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Barnhardt, C., Borsting, E., Deland, P., Pham, N., & Vu, T. (2005). Relationship between visual-motor integration and spatial organization of written language and math. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(2), 138-43.

Beery, K. E., Buktenica, N. A., & Beery, N. A. (2010). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: Administration, scoring, and teaching manual (6th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: NSC Pearson.

Bullier, J. (2001). Integrated model of visual processing. Brain Research Reviews, 36(2-3), 96-107.

Davis, E. E., Pitchford, N. J., & Limback, E. (2011). The interrelation between cognitive and motor development in typically developing children aged 4-11 years is underpinned by visual processing and fine manual control. British Journal of Psychology, 102(3), 569-584.

Mayes, S. D., Calhoun, S. L., Bixler, E. O., & Zimmerman, D. N. (2009). IQ and neuropsychological predictors of academic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 238-241.

Pieters, S., Desoete, A., Roeyers, H., Vanderswalmen, R., & Van Waelvelde, H. (2012). Behind mathematical learning disabilities: What about visual perception and motor skills? Learning and Individual Differences, 22(4), 498-504.

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Salillas, E., Basso, D., Baldi, M., Semenza, C., & Vecchi, T. (2008). Motion on numbers: Transcranial magnetic stimulation on the ventral intraparietal sulcus alters both numerical and motion processes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(11), 2129-2138.

Shinn-Cunningham, B. G. (2008). Object-based auditory and visual attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(5), 182-186.

Sigmundsson, H., Anholt, S. K., & Talcott, J. B. (2010). Are poor mathematics skills associated with visual deficits in temporal processing? Neuroscience Letters, 469, 248-250.

Sortor, J. M., & Kulp, M. T. (2003). Are the results of the Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration and its subtests related to achievement test scores? Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry, 80(11), 758-763.

Sutton, G. P., Barchard, K. A., Bello, D. T., Thaler, N. S., Ringdahl, E., Mayfield, J., & Allen, D. N. (2011). Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration performance in children with traumatic brain injury and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 805-809.

Zhou, X., Wei, W., Zhang, Y., Cui, J., & Chen, C. (2015). Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-13.