Measures and References: Visual Processing

Return to Visual Processing factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) (Rey, 1941): Evaluates Visual Spatial Processing and memory for visual-spatial information

Computer-Based Vision Tasks (Boros et al., 2016): Ask students to remember or respond to the spatial position or a specific visual characteristic of either letters/words or non-linguistic symbols (this is often important to include so language skills do not impact scores)


Boets, B., Wouters, J., Van Wieringen, A., De Smedt, B., & Ghesquiere, P. (2008). Modelling relations between sensory processing, speech perception, orthographic and phonological ability, and literacy achievement. Brain and Language, 106(1), 29-40.

Bosse, M. L., Chaves, N., Largy, P., & Valdois, S. (2015). Orthographic learning during reading: The role of whole‐word visual processing. Journal of Research in Reading, 38(2), 141-158.

Feagans, L. V., & Merriwether, A. (1990). Visual discrimination of letter-like forms and its relationship to achievement over time in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(7), 417-425.

Franceschini, S., Gori, S., Ruffino, M., Pedrolli, K., & Facoetti, A. (2012). A causal link between visual spatial attention and reading acquisition. Current Biology, 22(9), 814-819.

Goldstand, S., Koslowe, K. C., & Parush, S. (2005). Vision, visual-information processing, and academic performance among seventh-grade schoolchildren: A more significant relationship than we thought? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59(4), 377-389.

Kulp, M. T. (1999). Relationship between visual motor integration skill and academic performance in kindergarten through third grade. Optometry & Vision Science, 76(3), 159-163.

Lack, D. (2010). Another joint statement regarding learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision—A rebuttal. Optometry-Journal of the American Optometric Association, 81(10), 533-543.

Lobier, M., Zoubrinetzky, R., & Valdois, S. (2012). The visual attention span deficit in dyslexia is visual and not verbal. Cortex, 48(6), 768-773.

Rey, A. (1941). L'examen psychologique dans les cas d'encephalopathie traumatique. (Les Problems). Archives de Psychologie, 28, 286-340.

Rosner, J., & Rosner, J. (1987). Comparison of visual characteristics in children with and without learning difficulties. Optometry & Vision Science,64(7), 531-533.

Satz, P., & Fletcher, J. (1982). Florida kindergarten screening battery (FKSB). Psychological Assessment Resources.

Sortor, J. M., & Kulp, M. T. (2003). Are the results of the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and its subtests related to achievement test scores? Optometry & Vision Science, 80(11), 758-763.

Ziegler, J. C., Pech‐Georgel, C., Dufau, S., & Grainger, J. (2010). Rapid processing of letters, digits and symbols: What purely visual‐attentional deficit in developmental dyslexia? Developmental Science, 13(4), F8-F14.