Measures and References: Vocabulary

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) (Dunn & Dunn, 2007): Measures Receptive Vocabulary (ages 2;6 - 90+ years)


Berman, R. A., & Nir-Sagiv, B. (2007). Comparing narrative and expository text construction across adolescence: A developmental paradox. Discourse Processes, 43(2), 79-120.

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 327-336.

Bishop, D. (1989). TROG: Test of Reception of Grammar__. Abingdon, UK: Thomas Leach Ltd.

Briscoe, J., Bishop, D. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2001). Phonological processing, language, and literacy: A comparison of children with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss and those with specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(3), 329-340.

Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996). Oral and Written Language Scale. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.

Connor, C. M., Radach, R., Vorstius, C., Day, S. L., McLean, L., & Morrison, F. J. (2015). Individual differences in fifth graders' literacy and academic language predict comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19(2), 114-134.

Currie, N. K., & Cain, K. (2015). Children's inference generation: The role of vocabulary and working memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 137, 57-75.

Dunn, L. M., The ́riault-Whalen, C. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1993). Echelle de vocabulaire en images Peabody. Adaptation fran ̧caise du Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Revised. Toronto: PsyCan.

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: PPVT-4A. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson.

Dunn, L. M., Dunn, D. M., Styles, B., and Sewell, J. (2009). The British Picture Vocabulary Scale III (3rd ed.). London: GL Assessment Limited.

Dunn, L.M., Dunn, L.M., & Whetton, C.W. (1997). T__he British Picture Vocabulary Scale (2nd ed.). Windsor, England: NFER-Nelson.

Ecalle, J. (2006). Time ́3. Test d'identification de mots e ́crits pour enfants de 7 a`15 ans [Written word recognition test for children from 7 to 15 y.o]. Paris: Mot-`a-Mot.

Ecalle, J., & Magnan, A. (2008). Relations between print exposure and literacy skills: New evidence from Grade 1-5. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26(4), 525-544.

Fagan, M. K. (2016). Spoken vocabulary development in deaf children with and without cochlear implants. The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies in Language, 132-145.

Floyd, R. G., McGrew, K. S., & Evans, J. J. (2008). The relative contributions of the Cattell‐Horn‐Carroll cognitive abilities in explaining writing achievement during childhood and adolescence. Psychology in the Schools, 45(2), 132-144.

Ganzeboom, H.B.G., de Graaf, P.M., Treiman, D.J., & de Leeuw, J. (1992). A standard International Socio-Economic Index of occupational status. Social Science Research, 21(1), 1-56.

Heppt, B., Haag, N., Bohme, K., & Stanat, P. (2015). The role of academic‐language features for reading comprehension of language‐minority students and students from low‐SES families. Reading Research Quarterly, 50(1), 61-82.

Hutchinson, J. M., Whiteley, H. E., Smith, C. D., & Connors, L. (2003). The developmental progression of comprehension‐related skills in children learning EAL. Journal of Research in Reading, 26(1), 19-32.

Karlsen, B., & Gardner, E. (1995). Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (4th ed.): Brown level (Grades 6.5 to 8.9). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement.

Karlsen, B., & Gardner, E. (1996). Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (4th ed.): Purple level (Grades 4.5 to 6.5). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement.

Koutsoftas, A. D., & Gray, S. (2012). Comparison of narrative and expository writing in students with and without language-learning disabilities. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43(4), 395-409.

Lesaux, N. K., Kieffer, M. J., Kelley, J. G., & Harris, J. R. (2014). Effects of academic vocabulary instruction for linguistically diverse adolescents: Evidence from a randomized field trial. American Educational Research Journal, 51(6), 1159-1194.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K. & Dreyer, L. G. (2000). Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K., & Dreyer, L. G. (2002). Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Fourth Edition Technical Report for Forms S & T. Itasca, IL: Riverside.

Mancilla‐Martinez, J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2011). The gap between Spanish speakers' word reading and word knowledge: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 82(5), 1544-1560.

Morra, S., & Camba, R. (2009). Vocabulary learning in primary school children: Working memory and long-term memory components. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104(2), 156-178.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (2006). Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle-school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 134-147.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Vaughan, K., & Vermeulen, K. (2003). Relationship of morphology and other language skills to literacy skills in at-risk second-grade readers and at-risk fourth-grade writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 730-742.

Neale, M.D. (1997). Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (Second Revised British Edition). Windsor: NFER-Nelson.

Norbury, C. F. (2004). Factors supporting idiom comprehension in children with communication disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(5), 1179-1193.

Olinghouse, N. G., & Leaird, J. T. (2009). The relationship between measures of vocabulary and narrative writing quality in second-and fourth-grade students. Reading and Writing, 22(5), 545-565.

Ouellette, G. P. (2006). What's meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566.

Pickering, S., & Gathercole, S. (2001). Working Memory Test Battery for Children. London: Psychological Corporation.

Pittman, A. L. (2008). Short-term word-learning rate in children with normal hearing and children with hearing loss in limited and extended high-frequency bandwidths. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51(3), 785-797.

Semel, E.M., Wiig, E.H., & Secord, W. (2000). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (3rd UK ed.). London: The Psychological Corporation.

Sharkey, P. (2010). The acute effect of local homicides on children's cognitive performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(26), 11733-11738.

Thurstone, T. G., & Thurstone, L. L. (1981). PMA abilità mentali primarie (Revisione 1962), Manuale per l'esaminatore, Reattivi per i livelli 4-6 (3 , 4 , 5 Elementare e 1 media) (Primary Mental Abilities, 1962 revision: Tester's manual) (Italian adaptation by V. Rubini & M. A. Rossi). Firenze, Italy: Organizzazioni Speciali.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 73-87.

Wiig, E.H & Secord, W. (1992). Test of Word Knowledge. London: The Psychological Corporation Limited.

Woodcock, R. W. (1987). Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests - Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service

Woodcock, R. W. (1991). Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery - Revised. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

Woodcock, R. W., Muñoz-Sandoval, A. F. (1995). Bateria Woodcock-Muñoz Pruebas de Aprovechamieto- Evisada. Chicago, IL: Riverside.

Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of Cognitive Abilities. Itaska, IL: Riverside Publishing.