Measures and References: Attention

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Conners Continuous Performance Test (CCPT 3) (Conners, 2014): A computerized task (including an [auditory format][3]) for ages 6+ measuring Attention, requiring participants to press a key after each letter presented, unless the presented letter is an "X". Response time and accuracy are used to assess components of Attention.


Anobile, G., Marco, G., & Burr, D. C. (2012). Linear mapping of numbers onto space requires attention. Cognition, 122(3), 454-459.

Barhorst-Cates, E. M., Rand, K. M., & Creem-Regehr, S. H. (2017). Let me be your guide: Physical guidance improves spatial learning for older adults with simulated low vision. Experimental Brain Research, 235(11), 3307-3317.

Buchholz, J., & Davies, A. A. (2005). Adults with dyslexia demonstrate space-based and object-based covert attention deficits: Shifting attention to the periphery and shifting attention between objects in the left visual field. Brain and Cognition, 57(1), 30-34.

Conners, C. K. (2014). Conners Continuous Performance Test (Conners CPT 3) & Conners Continuous Auditory Test of Attention (Conners CATA): Technical Manual. Multi-Health Systems.

Cowan, N., Nugent, L. D., Elliott, E. M., Ponomarev, I., & Saults, J. S. (1999). The role of attention in the development of short‐term memory: Age differences in the verbal span of apprehension. Child Development, 70(5), 1082-1097.

Desimone, R., & Duncan, J. (1995). Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 18(1), 193-222.

Dreisbach, G., & Goschke, T. (2004). How positive affect modulates cognitive control: Reduced perseveration at the cost of increased distractibility. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 30(2), 343-353.

Fukuda K., & Vogel, E. K. (2009). Human variation in overriding attentional capture. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(27), 8726-8733.

Gazzaley, A., & Nobre, A. C. (2012). Top-down modulation: Bridging selective attention and working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(2), 129-135.

Gothe, N. P., Kramer, A. F., & McAuley, E. (2017). Hatha yoga practice improves attention and processing speed in older adults: Results from an 8-week randomized control trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 23(1), 35-40.

Harvey, A. J., Kneller, W., & Campbell, A. C. (2013). The effects of alcohol intoxication on attention and memory for visual scenes. Memory, 21(8), 969-980.

Holdnack, J. A., Moberg, P. J., Arnold, S. E., Gur, R. C., et al. (1995). Speed of processing and verbal learning deficits in adults diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology, 8(4), 282-292.

Horsman, J. (2006). Moving beyond "stupid": Taking account of the impact of violence on women's learning. International Journal of Educational Development, 26(2), 177-188.

Jones, Christopher, R., Fazio, Russell, H., & Vasey, Michael, W. (2012). Attentional control buffers the effect of public speaking anxiety on performance. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(5), 556-561.

Konig, Cornelius, J., Buhner, M., & Murling, G. (2005). Working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention are predictors of multitasking performance, but polychronocity and extraversion are not. Human Performance, 18(3), 243-266.

Lijffijt, M., Kenemans, J. L., Verbaten, M. N., & Van Engeland, H. (2005). A meta-analytic review of stopping performance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: Deficient inhibitory motor control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(2), 216-222.

Lim, J. & Dinges, D. F. (2010). A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep depri-vation on cognitive variables. Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 375-389.

Loh, K. K., Tan, B. Z. H., & Lim, S. W. H. (2016). Media multitasking predicts video-recorded lecture learning performance through mind wandering tendencies. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 943-947.

Miranda, A., Mercader, J., Fernandez, M. I., & Colomer, C. (2017). Reading performance of young adults with ADHD diagnosed in childhood: Relations with executive functioning. Journal of Attention Disorders, 21(4), 294-304.

Moisala, M. (2017). Brain activations related to attention and working memory and their association with technology-mediated activities. Dissertationes Scholae Doctoralis Ad Sanitatem Investigandam Universitatis Helsinkiensis.

Mowinckel, A. M., Pedersen, M. L., Eilertsen, E., & Biele, G. (2015). A meta-analysis of decision-making and attention in adults with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19(5), 355-367.

Mrazek, M. D., Chin, J. M., Schmader, T., Hartson, K. A., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2011). Threatened to distraction: Mind-wandering as a consequence of stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(6), 1243-1248.

Murphy, P. (2002). Inhibitory control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 6(1), 1-4.

Peers, P. V., & Lawrence, A. D. (2009). Attentional control of emotional distraction in rapid serial visual presentation. Emotion, 9(1), 140-145.

Plebanek, D. J., & Sloutsky, V. M. (2017). Costs of selective attention: When children notice what adults miss. Psychological Science, 28(6), 723-732.

Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (1998). Attention, self-regulation and consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 353(1377), 1915-1927.

Prins, E., & Van Horn, B. (2012). Adult learning in family literacy. In B.H. Wasik (Ed.), Handbook of Family Literacy (p. 166-180). Routledge.

Ralph, B. C., Thomson, D. R., Seli, P., Carriere, J. S., & Smilek, D. (2015). Media multitasking and behavioral measures of sustained attention. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77(2), 390-401.

Railo, H., Koivisto, M., Revosuo, A., & Hannula, M. (2008). The role of attention in subitizing. Cognition, 107, 82-104.

Sladen, D. P., Tharpe, A. M., Ashmead, D. H., Grantham, D. W., & Chun, M. M. (2005). Visual attention in deaf and normal hearing adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48(6), 1529-1537.

Tomporowski, P., & Tinsley, V. (1996). Effects of memory demand and motivation on sustained attention in young and older adults. The American Journal of Psychology, 109(2), 187-204

Volkow, N. D., Wang, G. J., Newcorn, J. H., Kollins, S. H., Wigal, T. L., Telang, F., … Swanson, J. M. (2011). Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(11), 1147-1154.

Wais, P. E., & Gazzaley, A. (2014). Distractibility during retrieval of long-term memory: domain-general interference, neural networks and increased susceptibility in normal aging. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 280.

White, H. A., & Shah, P. (2011). Creative style and achievement in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(5), 673-677.

Zanto, T. P., & Gazzaley, A. (2014). Attention and aging. Psychologie & Neuropsychiatrie Du Vieillissement, 2, 257-269.