Measures and References: Emotion

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Emotion Regulation Checklist (ER Checklist) (Shields & Cichetti, 1997): A parent questionnaire that includes an Emotion regulation scale

Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) (March, 2013): A self-report and parent-report measure of the presence of anxiety for students aged eight to 19

Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (McKenna & Kear, 1990): Assess enjoyment of reading with 20 items self-report on attitudes toward both recreational and academic reading


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Denham, S. A. (1986). Social cognition, prosocial behavior, and emotion in preschoolers: Contextual validation. Child Development, 57, 194-201.

DePrince, A. P., Weinzierl, K. M., & Combs, M. D. (2009). Executive function performance and trauma exposure in a community sample of children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(6), 353-361.

Garner, P. W., Jones, D. C., & Miner, J. L. (1994). Social competence among low-income preschoolers: Emotion socialization practices and social cognitive correlates. Child Development, 65, 622-637.

Graziano, P. A., Reavis, R. D., Keane, S. P., & Calkins, S. D. (2007). The role of emotion regulation in children's early academic success. Journal of School Psychology, 45(1), 3-19.

Grills-Taquechel, A. E., Fletcher, J. M., Vaughn, S. R., & Stuebing, K. K. (2012). Anxiety and reading difficulties in early elementary school: Evidence for unidirectional-or bi-directional relations? Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43(1), 35-47.

Hartley, B. L., & Sutton, R. M. (2013). A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement. Child Development, 84(5), 1716-1733.

Hernandez, T. J., & Seem, S. R. (2004). A safe school climate: A systems approach and the school counselor. Professional School Counseling, 7, 256-262.

Hymel, S., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Miller, L. (2006). Reading, 'riting, 'rithmetic and relationships: Considering the social side of education. Exceptionality Education Canada, 16(3), 1-44.

Immordino-Yang, M.H. (2016). Emotion, sociality, and the brain's default mode network: Insights for educational practice and policy. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(2), 211-219.

Judge, S., & Jahns, L. (2007). Association of overweight with academic performance and social and behavioral problems: an update from the early childhood longitudinal study. Journal of School Health, 77(10), 672-678.

Kusché, C. A. (1985). The understanding of emotion concepts by deaf children: An assessment of an affective curriculum (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Lehmkuhl, G., Wiater, A., Mitschke, A., & Fricke-Oerkermann, L. (2008). Sleep disorders in children beginning school: Their causes and effects. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 105(47), 809-814.

March, J.S. (2013). Multidimensional anxiety scale for children (2nd ed.). Toronto, Canada: Multi-health Systems.

McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 43(9), 626-639.

Nelson, J. M., & Harwood, H. (2011). Learning disabilities and anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(1), 3-17.

Ramirez, G., Fries, L., Gunderson, E., Schaeffer, M. W., Maloney, E. A., Beilock, S. L., & Levine, S. C. (2019). Reading Anxiety: An early affective impediment to children's success in reading. Journal of Cognition and Development, 20(1), 15-34.

Rhoades, B. L., Warren, H. K., Domitrovich, C. E., & Greenberg, M. T. (2011). Examining the link between preschool social-emotional competence and first grade academic achievement: The role of attention skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(2), 182-191.

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Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., Nakamoto, J., & Toblin, R. L. (2005). Victimization in the peer group and children's academic functioning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 425 - 435.

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Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation among school-age children: The development and validation of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 906-916.

Sutherland, K. S., Lewis-Palmer, T., Stichter, J., & Morgan, P. L. (2008). Examining the influence of teacher behavior and classroom context on the behavioral and academic outcomes for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. The Journal of Special Education, 41(4), 223-233.

Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Kouwenberg, M., Soede, W., Briaire, J. J., & Frijns, J. H. (2011). Depression in hearing-impaired children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75(10), 1313-1317.

Tsovili, T.D. (2004). The relationship between language teachers' attitudes and the state-trait anxiety of adolescents with dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading, 27(1), 69-86.

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Wasserberg, M. J. (2014). Stereotype threat effects on African American children in an urban elementary school. The Journal of Experimental Education, 82(4), 502-517.

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