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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.
Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) (Gioia et al, 2000): Parent and teacher questionnaire assessing Self-regulation and executive function, including Inhibition, in students five to 18 years old
NEPSY-II Inhibition Subtest (Korkman et al., 2007): Subtest that requires students aged three through 16 to name items with its opposite (e.g. name "circle" for squares)
Aite, A., Berthoz, A., Vidal, J., Roell, M., Zaoui, M., Houde, O., & Borst, G. (2016). Taking a third-person perspective requires inhibitory control: Evidence from a developmental negative priming study. Child Development, 87(6), 1825-1840.
Altemeier, L. E., Abbott, R. D., & Berninger, V. W. (2008). Executive functions for reading and writing in typical literacy development and dyslexia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(5), 588-606.
Anderson, M. C., Green, C., & McCulloch, K. C. (2000). Similarity and inhibition in long-term memory: Evidence for a two-factor theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(5), 1141-1159.
Arrington, C. N., Kulesz, P. A., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., & Barnes, M. A. (2014). The contribution of attentional control and working memory to reading comprehension and decoding. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(5), 325-346.
Barkley, R. (1997). Behavioural inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions. _Psychological Bulletin, 121, _65-94.
Berninger, V. W. (2001). PAL: Process Assessment of the Learner, Test Battery for Reading and Writing. Psychological Corporation.
Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Cook, C. R., & Nagy, W. (2017). Relationships of attention and executive functions to oral language, reading, and writing skills and systems in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(4), 434-449.
Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641-1660.
Borella, E., Ghisletta, P., & De Ribaupierre, A. (2011). Age differences in text processing: The role of working memory, inhibition, and processing speed. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(3), 311-320.
Caldwell, B., & Bradley, R.H. (2005). HOME inventory administration manual, standard edition. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.
Cameron Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. S., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 605-619.
Delis, D., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J. (2003). Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.
DePrince, A. P., Weinzierl, K. M., & Combs, M. D. (2009). Executive function performance and trauma exposure in a community sample of children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(6), 353-361.
Drijbooms, E., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2017). How executive functions predict development in syntactic complexity of narrative writing in the upper elementary grades. Reading and Writing, 30(1), 209-231.
Duan, X., Wei, S., Wang, G., & Shi, J. (2010). The relationship between executive functions and intelligence on 11- to 12-year- old children. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52(4), 419-431.
Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., ... & Sexton, H. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428-1446.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2005). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III-NL. Nederlandse versie Liesbeth Schlichting. Handleiding. Amsterdam: Harcourt Test Publishers.
Eriksen, B.A., & Eriksen, C.W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16(1), 143-149.
Filippi, R., Morris, J., Richardson, F. M., Bright, P., Thomas, M. S., Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Marian, V. (2015). Bilingual children show an advantage in controlling verbal interference during spoken language comprehension. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(3), 490-501.
Geelhoed, J. W., & Reitsma, P. (1999). PI-dictee. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Gerstadt, C. L., Hong, Y. J., & Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a stroop-like day-night test. Cognition, 53(2), 129-153.
Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). BRIEF: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Golden, C.J. (1978). Stroop Color and Word Test: A manual for clinical and experimental uses. Chicago: Stoelting Co.
Gordon, M., & Barkley, R. A. (1998). Psychological testing and observational measures. In R. A. Barkley (Ed.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for clinicians. New York: Guilford Publications.
Hoffmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(3), 174-180.
Kapa, L. L., & Colombo, J. (2013). Attentional control in early and later bilingual children. Cognitive Development, 28(3), 233-246.
Kaplan, S., & Berman, M. G. (2010). Directed attention as a common resource for executive functioning and self-regulation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(1), 43-57.
Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp, S. (2007). NEPSY—Second Edition (NEPSY-II). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health. (2000). John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health Sociodemographic Questionnaire.
McAuley, T., & White, D. A. (2011). A latent variables examination of processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory during typical development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(3), 453-468.
McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers' literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947-959.
Pelco, L. E., & Reed-Victor, E. (2007). Self-regulation and learning-related social skills: Intervention ideas for elementary school students. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 51(3), 36-42.
Sadeh, A., Gruber, R., & Raviv, A. (2002). Sleep, neurobehavioral functioning, and behavior problems in school‐age children. Child Development, 73(2), 405-417.
Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: The roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 120-132.
Schretlen, D., Bobholz, J. H., & Brandt, J. (1996). Development and psychometric properties of the Brief Test of Attention. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 80-89.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(6), 643-662.
Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R., & Rashotte, C. (1999). Test of Word Reading Efficiency. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Van Waelvelde, H., De Mey, B., & Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M. (2008). Handleiding SOS. Systematische opsporing van schrijfmotorische problemen. Ghent: Revalidatiewetenschappen en Kinesitherapie Gent.
Williford, A. P., Vick Whittaker, J. E., Vitiello, V. E., & Downer, J. T. (2013). Children's engagement within the preschool classroom and their development of self-regulation. Early Education and Development, 24(2), 162-187.
Wolf, M., & Denckla, M. (2005). RAN/RAS Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
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