Measures and References: Long-term Memory

Return to Long-term Memory factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Children's Memory Scale (CMS) (Cohen, 1997): Assesses Long- and Short-term Memory in verbal, visual, and attention/concentration domains in students five to 16 years old

Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) (Reynolds & Voress, 2007): Measures verbal, nonverbal, and composite memory in people five to 59 years old


Anderson, M. C., Green, C., & Mcculloch, K. C. (2000). Similarity and inhibition in long-term memory: Evidence for a two-factor theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, and Cognition, 26(5), 1141-1159.

Andersson, U. (2008). Working memory as a predictor of written arithmetical skills in children: The importance of central executive functions. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(2), 181-203.

Baddeley, A. D. (1998). The central executive: A concept and some misconceptions. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4(5), 523-526.

Bremner, J. D. (2003). Long-term effects of childhood abuse on brain and neurobiology. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12(2), 271-292.

Cohen, M. J. (1997). Examiner's manual: Children's Memory Scale. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?. Progress in Brain Research, 169, 323-338.

De Ribaupierre, A. (2002). Working memory and attentional processes across the lifespan. In P. Graf & N. Ohta (Eds.), Lifespan development of human memory (pp. 59-80). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

De Smedt, B., Holloway, I. D., & Ansari, D. (2011). Effects of problem size and arithmetic operation on brain activation during calculation in children with varying levels of arithmetical fluency. NeuroImage, 57(3), 771-781.

Mussolin, C., & Noel, M.-P. (2008). Specific retrieval deficit from long-term memory in children with poor arithmetic facts abilities. The Open Psychology Journal, 1, 26-34.

Rapp, B., Purcell, J., Hillis, A. E., Capasso, R., & Miceli, G. (2015). Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia. Brain, 139(2), 588-604.

Rasch, B., & Born, J. (2013). About sleep's role in memory. Physiological Reviews, 93(2), 681-766.

Reynolds, C. R., & Voress, J. K. (2007). Test of Memory and Learning (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Simmons, F. R., & Singleton, C. (2008). Do weak phonological representations impact on arithmetic development? A review of research into arithmetic and dyslexia. Dyslexia, 14(2), 77-94.

Stein, M. B., Koverola, C., Hanna, C., Torchia, M. G., & McClarty, B. (1997). Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Medicine, 27(04), 951-959.