Measures and References: Narrative Skills

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Story Generation Tasks: Macrostructure and microstructure of narrative elements can be assessed by having students tell a story using a wordless picture book or sequencing cards.


Abbott, R. D., & Berninger, V. W. (1993). Structural equation modeling of relationships among developmental skills and writing skills in primary-and intermediate-grade writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 478.

Boons, T., De Raeve, L., Langereis, M., Peeraer, L., Wouters, J., & Van Wieringen, A. (2013). Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(6), 2008-2022.

Duncan, S., & De Avila, E. (1998). Preschool language assessment scale (Pre-Las). Monterey, CA: CTB/McGraw-Hill.

Gardner-Neblett, N., & Iruka, I. U. (2015). Oral narrative skills: Explaining the language-emergent literacy link by race/ethnicity and SES. Developmental Psychology, 51(7), 889-904.

Griffin, T. M., Hemphill, L., Camp, L., & Wolf, D. P. (2004). Oral discourse in the preschool years and later literacy skills. First Language, 24(2), 123-147.

Kim, Y. S., Al Otaiba, S., & Wanzek, J. (2015). Kindergarten predictors of third grade writing. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 27-37.

Kit-Sum To, C., Stokes, S. F., Cheung, H.-T., & T'sou, B. (2010). Narrative assessment for Cantonese-speaking children. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 53(3), 648-669.

Manhardt, J., & Rescorla, L. (2002). Oral narrative skills of late talkers at ages 8 and 9. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 1-21.

Mayer, M. (1969). Frog, where are you? New York, NY: Dial Press.

McCabe, A., Boccia, J., Bennett, M. B., Lyman, N., & Hagen, R. (2010). Improving oral language and literacy skills in preschool children from disadvantaged backgrounds: Remembering, writing, reading (RWR). Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 29(4), 363-390.

Nelson, K. (1996). Language in cognitive development: Emergence of the mediated mind. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Norbury, C. F., & Bishop, D. V. M. (2003). Narrative skills of children with communication impairments. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 38(3), 287-313.

Paul, R., Hernandez, R., Taylor, L., & Johnson, K. (1996). Narrative development in late talkers: Early school age. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 39, 1295-1303.

Soodla, P., & Kikas, E. (2010). Macrostructure in the narratives of Estonian children with typical development and language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 53, 1321-1333.

Spencer, T. D., & Petersen, D. B. (2018). Bridging oral and written language: An oral narrative language intervention study with writing outcomes. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 49(3), 569-581.

Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Developmental Psychology, 38(6), 934.

Vandewalle, E., Boets, B., Boons, T., Ghesquiere, P., & Zink, I. (2012). Oral language and narrative skills in children with specific language impairment with and without literacy delay: A three-year longitudinal study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 1857-1870.

Whitehurst, G. J., Arnold, D. S., Epstein, J. N., Angell, A. L., Smith, M., & Fischel, J. E. (1994). A picture book reading intervention in daycare and home for children from low-income families. Developmental Psychology, 30, 679-689.

Zevenbergen, A. A., Whitehurst, G. J., & Zevenbergen, J. A. (2003). Effects of a shared-reading intervention on the inclusion of evaluative devices in narratives of children from low-income families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(1), 1-15.