Measures and References: Orthographic Processing

Return to Orthographic Processing factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

The Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Third Edition (KTEA-3) (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2014): Measures Orthographic Processing skills through word recognition fluency, Spelling, and letter naming facility subtests for students in first to twelfth grades


Arrington, C. N., Kulesz, P. A., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., & Barnes, M. A. (2014). The contribution of attentional control and working memory to reading comprehension and decoding. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(5), 325-346.

Beery, K. E., Buktenica, N. A., & Beery, N. A. (2010). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: Administration, scoring, and teaching manual (6th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: NSC Pearson.

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 327-336.

Bosse, M. L., Chaves, N., Largy, P., & Valdois, S. (2015). Orthographic learning during reading: The role of whole‐word visual processing. Journal of Research in Reading, 38(2), 141-158.

Compton, D. L. (2002). The relationships among phonological processing, orthographic processing, and lexical development in children with reading disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 35(4), 201-210.

Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1990). Assessing print exposure and orthographic processing skill in children: A quick measure of reading experience. _Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, _733-740.

Dunn, L. M., The ́riault-Whalen, C. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1993). Echelle de vocabulaire en images Peabody. Adaptation fran ̧caise du Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Revised. Toronto: PsyCan.

Ecalle, J. (2006). Time ́3. Test d'identification de mots e ́crits pour enfants de 7 a`15 ans [Written word recognition test for children from 7 to 15 y.o]. Paris: Mot-`a-Mot.

Ecalle, J., & Magnan, A. (2008). Relations between print exposure and literacy skills: New evidence from Grade 1-5. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26(4), 525-544.

Fariña, N., Duñabeitia, J. A., & Carreiras, M. (2017). Phonological and orthographic coding in deaf skilled readers._ Cognition, 168_, 27-33.

Jasińska, K. K., & Petitto, L. A. (2018). Age of bilingual exposure is related to the contribution of phonological and semantic knowledge to successful reading development. Child Development, 89(1), 310-331.

Karlsen, B., & Gardner, E. (1995). Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (4th ed.): Brown level (Grades 6.5 to 8.9). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement.

Karlsen, B., & Gardner, E. (1996). Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (4th ed.): Purple level (Grades 4.5 to 6.5). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement

Kaufman, A. S., Kaufman, N. L. (2014). Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (3rd ed.). Bloomington, MN: NCS Pearson.

Kibby, M. Y. (2009). There are multiple contributors to the verbal short-term memory deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 15(5), 485-506.

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K. & Dreyer, L. G. (2000). Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.

May, P. (2002). _HSP 1-9: Diagnose orthografischer Kompetenz - Handbuch _[HSP 1-9: Analysis of orthographic ability - Manual]. Hamburg, Germany: Verlag für pädagogische Medien.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (2006). Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle-school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 134-147.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Vaughan, K., & Vermeulen, K. (2003). Relationship of morphology and other language skills to literacy skills in at-risk second-grade readers and at-risk fourth-grade writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 730-742.

Ouellette, G. P. (2006). What's meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566.

Rapp, B., Purcell, J., Hillis, A. E., Capasso, R., & Miceli, G. (2015). Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia. Brain, 139(2), 588-604.

Rosner, J. (1975). Test of Auditory Analysis Skills. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy.

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1989). Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 402-433.

Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R., & Rashotte, C. (1999). Test of Word Reading Efficiency. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 73-87.

Wicki, W., Hurschler Lichtsteiner, S., Saxer Geiger, A., & Muller, M. (2014). Handwriting fluency in children: Impact and correlates. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 73(2), 87-96.

Williams, G. J., & Larkin, R. F. (2013). Narrative writing, reading and cognitive processes in middle childhood: What are the links?. Learning and Individual Differences, 28, 142-150.

Wood, C., Jackson, E., Hart, L., Plester, B., & Wilde, L. (2011). The effect of text messaging on 9‐and 10‐year‐old children's reading, spelling and phonological processing skills. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(1), 28-36.

Woodcock, R. W. (1987). Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests - Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Woodcock, R. W., & Johnson, M. B. (1989). Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Tests of Achievement. Chicago: Riverside.