Measures and References: Phonological Processing

Return to Phonological Processing factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) (Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, & Pearson, 2013): Measures Phonological Awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming (ages 5-24 years)

The Phonological Awareness Test 2 (PAT 2) (Robertson & Salter, 2007): Measures all aspects of Phonological Processing, including rhyming and the ability to detect and manipulate phonemes (ages 5 - 9 years 11 months)


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Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Pearson, N. A. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing: CTOPP2. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.