Measures and References: Phonological Processing

Return to Phonological Processing Factor page.

Measures

Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) (Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, & Pearson, 2013): Measures Phonological Awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming (ages 5-24 years)

The Phonological Awareness Test 2 (PAT 2) (Robertson & Salter, 2007): Measures all aspects of Phonological Processing, including rhyming and the ability to detect and manipulate phonemes (ages 5 - 9 years 11 months)

References

Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417-423.

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 327-336.

Bowey, J. A., Storey, T., & Ferguson, A. N. (2004). The association between continuous naming speed and word reading skill in fourth‐to sixth‐grade children. Australian Journal of Psychology, 56(3), 155-163.

Briscoe, J., Bishop, D. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2001). Phonological processing, language, and literacy: A comparison of children with mild‐to‐moderate sensorineural hearing loss and those with specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(3), 329-340.

Compton, D. L. (2002). The relationships among phonological processing, orthographic processing, and lexical development in children with reading disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 35(4), 201-210.

Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1990). Assessing print exposure and orthographic processing skill in children: A quick measure of reading experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 733-740.

Deacon, S. H., & Kirby, J. R. (2004). Morphological awareness: Just "more phonological"? The roles of morphological and phonological awareness in reading development. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25(2), 223-238.

Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., Whetton, C., & Pintilie, D. (1982). British Picture Vocabulary Scale-long form. Windsor, U.K.: NFER-Nelson.

Ehri, L.C. (2005). Learning to read words: Theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 167-188.

German, D. J. (1989). Test of Word Finding. Chicago: Riverside Publishing Company.

Hanten, G., & Martin, R. C. (2000). Contributions of phonological and semantic short-term memory to sentence processing: Evidence from two cases of closed head injury in children. Journal of Memory and Language, 43(2), 335-361.

Jasińska, K. K., & Petitto, L. A. (2018). Age of bilingual exposure is related to the contribution of phonological and semantic knowledge to successful reading development. Child Development, 89(1), 310-331.

Morra, S., & Camba, R. (2009). Vocabulary learning in primary school children: Working memory and long-term memory components. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104(2), 156-178.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (2006). Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle-school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 134-147.

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2002). Does impaired grammatical comprehension provide evidence for an innate grammar module? Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 247-268

Poldrack, R. A., Temple, E., Protopapas, A., Nagarajan, S., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2001). Relations between the neural bases of dynamic auditory processing and phonological processing: Evidence from fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13(5), 687-697.

Robertson C., & Salter W. (2007). The Phonological Awareness Test, (2nd ed) (PAT-2). East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.

Rosner, J. (1975). Test of Auditory Analysis Skills. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy.

Rust, J., Golombok, S., & Trickey, G. (1993). Wechsler Objective Reading Dimensions. Sidcup, U.K.: Psychological Corporation.

Savage, R. S., Frederickson, N., Goodwin, R., Patni, U., Smith, N., & Tuersley, L. (2005). Relationships among rapid digit naming, phonological processing, motor automaticity, and speech perception in poor, average, and good readers and spellers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(1), 12-28.

Thurstone, T. G., & Thurstone, L. L. (1981). PMA abilità mentali primarie (Revisione 1962), Manuale per l'esaminatore, Reattivi per i livelli 4-6 (3 , 4 , 5 Elementare e 1 media) (Primary Mental Abilities, 1962 revision: Tester's manual) (Italian adaptation by V. Rubini & M. A. Rossi). Firenze, Italy: Organizzazioni Speciali.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Pearson, N. A. (2013). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing: CTOPP2. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.