Measures and References: Physical Well-being

Return to Physical Well-being factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

General Measures: Physical Fitness can be measured in several different ways, such as the average amount of time a person spends in physical activities each week and their body mass index.


Annesi, J. J., Johnson, P. H., Tennant, G. A., Porter, K. J., & Mcewen, K. L. (2016). Weight loss and the prevention of weight regain: Evaluation of a treatment model of exercise self-regulation generalizing to controlled eating. The Permanente Journal, 20(3), 4-17.

Basso, J. C., & Suzuki, W. A. (2017). The effects of acute exercise on mood, cognition, neurophysiology, and neurochemical pathways: A review. Brain Plasticity, 2(2), 127-152.

Buckworth, J., Lee, R. E., Regan, G., Schneider, L. K., & DiClemente, C. C. (2007). Decomposing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for exercise: Application to stages of motivational readiness. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(4), 441-461.

Carpentieri, J.D. & Frumkin, L. (2010) Adult numeracy: A review of research. National Research and Development Centre for Literacy and Numeracy (NRDC), Institute of Education, University of London.

Chang, Y. K., Labban, J. D., Gapin, J. I., & Etnier, J. L. (2012). The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Research, 1453, 87-101.

Crews, J. E., & Campbell, V. A. (2004). Vision impairment and hearing loss among community-dwelling older Americans: implications for health and functioning. American Journal of Public Health, 94(5), 823-829.

Diehl, S. J. (2011). Health literacy education within adult literacy instruction. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 130, 29-41.

Field, J. (2011). Adult learning, health and well-being-changing lives. Adult Learner, 13-25.

Goosby, B. J., & Heidbrink, C. (2013). The transgenerational consequences of discrimination on African‐American health outcomes. Sociology Compass, 7(8), 630-643.

Gothe, N. P., Kramer, A. F., & McAuley, E. (2017). Hatha yoga practice improves attention and processing speed in older adults: Results from an 8-week randomized control trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 23(1), 35-40.

Gow, A.J., Mortensen, E.L., and Avlund, K. (2012). Activity participation and cognitive aging from age 50 to 80 in the Glostrup 1914 cohort. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(10), 1831-1838.

Haynes, J. T., Frith, E., Sng, E., & Loprinzi, P. D. (2019). Experimental effects of acute exercise on episodic memory function: Considerations for the timing of exercise. Psychological Reports, 122(5), 1744-1754.

Hong, Y. A., & Cho, J. (2017). Has the digital health divide widened? Trends of health-related internet use among older adults from 2003 to 2011. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72(5), 856-863.

Hornsby, B. W., Naylor, G., & Bess, F. H. (2017). A taxonomy of fatigue concepts and their relation to hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 37(Suppl 1), 136S.

Ihle, A., Mons, U., Perna, L., Oris, M., Fagot, D., Gabriel, R., & Kliegel, M. (2016). The relation of obesity to performance in verbal abilities, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility in old age: The role of cognitive reserve. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 42(1-2), 117-126.

Keenan, T. D., Agron, E., Mares, J. A., Clemons, T. E., van Asten, F., Swaroop, A., & Chew, E. Y. (2020). Adherence to a mediterranean diet and cognitive function in the age‐related eye disease studies 1 & 2. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 16(6), 831-842.

Masley, S., Roetzheim, R., & Gualtieri, T. (2009). Aerobic exercise enhances cognitive flexibility. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 16(2), 186-193.

McFarlane, A. C. (2010). The long‐term costs of traumatic stress: Intertwined physical and psychological consequences. World Psychiatry, 9(1), 3-10.

Murray, M. D., Morrow, D. G., Weiner, M., Tu, W., Deer, M. M., Brater, D. C., & Weinberger, M. (2004). A conceptual framework to study medication adherence in older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 2(1), 36-43.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). How people learn II: Learners, contexts, and cultures. The National Academies Press.

Osborn, C. Y., Paasche-Orlow, M. K., Bailey, S. C., & Wolf, M. S. (2011). The mechanisms linking health literacy to behavior and health status. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35(1), 118-128.

Perrot, A., Gagnon, C., & Bertsch, J. (2009). Physical activity as a moderator of the relationship between aging and inductive reasoning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(2), 393-397.

President's Council on Sports. (2017). Facts & statistics.

Rebar, A. L., Stanton, R., Geard, D., Short, C., Duncan, M. J., & Vandelanotte, C. (2015). A meta-meta-analysis of the effect of physical activity on depression and anxiety in non-clinical adult populations. Health Psychology Review, 9(3), 366-378.

Rhone, A., Ver Ploeg, M., Williams, R., & Breneman, V. (2019). Understanding low-Income and low-access census tracts across the nation: Subnational and subpopulation estimates of access to healthy food. United States Department of Agriculture.

Rogge, A. K., Roder, B., Zech, A., Nagel, V., Hollander, K., Braumann, K. M., & Hotting, K. (2017). Balance training improves memory and spatial cognition in healthy adults. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 1-10.

Schneider, E. L., & Davidson, L. (2003). Physical health and adult well-being. In M. H. Bornstein, L. Davidson, C. L. M. Keyes, & K. A. Moore (Eds.), Crosscurrents in contemporary psychology. Well-being: Positive development across the life course (pp. 407-423). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Sibley, B. A., Etnier, J. L., & Le Masurier, G. C. (2006). Effects of an acute bout of exercise on cognitive aspects of stroop performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 28(3), 285-299.

Thoits, P. A. (2011). Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52(2), 145-161.

Yoon, H., Jang, Y., Vaughan, P. W., & Garcia, M. (2020). Older adults' Internet use for health information: Digital divide by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 39(1), 105-110.