Measures and References: Reading Fluency

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Measures

Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Zutell & Rasinski, 1991): Students read aloud a carefully chosen passage and are rated using a rubric assessing the elements of prosody.

CMB/ORF Reading Fluency Assessment (Rasinski, 2004): Students read aloud three selected passages and are assessed based on accuracy and reading rate.

References

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Barth, A. E., Catts, H. W., & Anthony, J. L. (2009). The component skills underlying reading fluency in adolescent readers : A latent variable analysis. Reading and Writing, 22, 567-590.

Behrman, E.H. (2006). Teaching about language, power, and text: A review of classroom practices that support critical literacy. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(6), 490.

Berninger V. W., Abbott R. D., Nagy W., & Carlisle J. (2010). Growth in phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness in Grades 1 to 6. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 39, 141-163.

Chall, J.S. (1983) Stages of Reading Development. New York: McGraw Hill.

Clemens, N. H., Simmons, D., Simmons, L. E., Wang, H., & Kwok, O. (2017). The prevalence of reading fluency and vocabulary difficulties among adolescents struggling with reading comprehension. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 35(8), 785-798.

Cook, A.E. & O'Brien, E.J. (2017). Fundamentals of inferencing during reading. Language and Linguistics Compass, 11(7), 1-16.

Goldin‐Meadow, S., & Mayberry, R. I. (2001). How do profoundly deaf children learn to read?. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(4), 222-229.

Hock, M. F., Brasseur, I. F., Deshler, D. D., Catts, H. W., Marquis, J. G., Mark, C. A., & Stribling, J. W. (2009). What is the reading component skill profile of adolescent struggling readers in urban schools?. Learning Disability Quarterly, 32(1), 21-38.

Faller, S. E. (2018). Reading and writing as scientists? Text genres and literacy practices in girls' middle-grade science. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 61(4), 381-390.

Klauda, S. L., & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 310-321.

Krizman, J., Skoe, E., & Kraus, N. (2016). Bilingual enhancements have no socioeconomic boundaries. Developmental Science, 19(6), 881-891.

Lesaux, N.K., Kieffer, M.J., Faller, S.E., & Kelley, J.G. (2010). The effectiveness and ease of implementation of an academic vocabulary intervention for linguistically diverse students in urban middle schools. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 196-228.

McGeown, S. P., Duncan, L. G., Griffiths, Y. M., & Stothard, S. E. (2015). Exploring the relationship between adolescent's reading skills, reading motivation and reading habits. Reading and Writing, 28(4), 545-569.

Nippold M. A. (2017). Reading Comprehension Deficits in Adolescents: Addressing Underlying Language Abilities. Language, speech, and hearing services in schools, 48(2), 125-131. doi:10.1044/2016_LSHSS-16-0048

Norbury, C. F., Bishop, D. V. M., & Briscoe, J. (2002). Does impaired grammatical comprehension provide evidence for an innate grammar module? Applied Psycholinguistics, 23(2), 247-268.

Parhiala, P., Torppa, M., Vasalampi, K., Eklund, K., Poikkeus, A. M., & Aro, T. (2018). Profiles of school motivation and emotional well-being among adolescents: Associations with math and reading performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 61, 196-204.

Poldrack, R. A., Temple, E., Protopapas, A., Nagarajan, S., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2001). Relations between the neural bases of dynamic auditory processing and phonological processing: Evidence from fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13(5), 687-697.

Rapp, B., Purcell, J., Hillis, A. E., Capasso, R., & Miceli, G. (2015). Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia. Brain, 139(2), 588-604.

Rasinski, T. V. (2004). Assessing reading fluency. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL).

Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N. D., McKeon, C. A., Wilfong, L. G., Friedauer, J. A., & Heim, P. (2005). Is reading fluency a key for successful high school reading?. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(1), 22-27.

Rasinski, T., Rikli, A., & Johnston, S. (2009). Reading fluency: More than automaticity? More than a concern for the primary grades?. Literacy Research and Instruction, 48(4), 350-361.

Recht, D.R. & Leslie, R. (1988). Effect of prior knowledge on good and poor readers' memory of text. Journal of Educational Psychology 80(1), 16-20.

Roembke, T. C., Hazeltine, E., Reed, D. K., & McMurray, B. (2019). Automaticity of word recognition is a unique predictor of reading fluency in middle-school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(2), 314-330.

Stone, E., Cook, L., & Laitusis, C. (2013). Evaluation of a condition-adaptive test of reading comprehension for students with reading-based learning disabilities. Research Report. ETS RR-13-20. ETS Research Report Series.

Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (2012). TOWRE-2 Examiner's Manual. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

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Zutell, J., & Rasinski, T. V. (1991). Training teachers to attend to their students' oral reading fluency. Theory Into Practice, 30, 211-217.