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Literacy 7-12

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Literacy 7-12 > Factors > Reading Fluency

Reading Fluency

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Reading Fluency refers to the foundational literacy skills, including word decoding, that are necessary for reading comprehension. Morphological Knowledge, Orthographic Processing, Phonological Processing, and understanding of Syntax all contribute to Reading Fluency. These skills are believed to reach their developmental peak during later elementary school and are not typically taught explicitly in middle and high school. Reading Fluency has been shown to predict reading comprehension in middle and high school. Those adolescents who have difficulty with Reading Fluency are likely to struggle with disciplinary content reading in one or more areas.

Main Ideas

Three components are considered when assessing adolescent oral and silent Reading Fluency:

  • Accuracy refers to one's ability to recognize words while reading with little to no mistakes.
  • By the end of elementary school, basic reading skills become automatic for most students. Those readers who have not achieved this automaticity by the middle grades may have increased difficulties in reading comprehension as they are struggling to understand the basic components of text.
  • When students learn to read with prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation of language) they are able to read with expression, which enhances comprehension. Prosody also aids a reader in creating correct syntactic representations of texts (i.e., 'text chunking') as they include proper pause and emphasis while reading. Students' ability to appropriately interpret and apply prosody is strongly linked to increased reading comprehension.

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