Measures and References: Reasoning

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1981): A paper and pencil measure of non-verbal critical thinking and fluid intelligence in learners six years and older.

WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008): Similarities subtest measures language conceptualization, verbal abstraction, and analogical verbal reasoning.


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Benedek, M., Jauk, E., Sommer, M., Arendasy, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). Intelligence, creativity, and cognitive control: The common and differential involvement of executive functions in intelligence and creativity. Intelligence, 46(1), 73-83.

Cockcroft, K., & Israel, N. (2011). The Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices: A comparison of relationships with verbal ability tests. South African Journal of Psychology, 41(3), 363-372.

Croizet, J. C., Despres, G., Gauzins, M. E., Huguet, P., Leyens, J. P., & Meot, A. (2004). Stereotype threat undermines intellectual performance by triggering a disruptive mental load. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(6), 721-731.

Crone, E. A., Wendelken, C., Van Leijenhorst, L., Honomichl, R. D., Christoff, K., & Bunge, S. A. (2009). Neurocognitive development of relational reasoning. Developmental Science, 12(1), 55-66.

Emily C. Nusbaum & Paul J. Silvia (2011). Are intelligence and creativity really so different? Fluid intelligence, executive processes, and strategy use in divergent thinking. Intelligence, 39(1), 36-45.

Johnson, G. M. (2008). Verbal and visual reasoning in relation to patterns of Internet use. Internet Research, 18(4), 382-392.

Huettig, F., & Janse, E. (2016). Individual differences in working memory and processing speed predict anticipatory spoken language processing in the visual world. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31(1), 80-93.

Konig, Cornelius, J., Buhner, M., & Murling, G. (2005). Working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention are predictors of multitasking performance, but polychronocity and extraversion are not. Human Performance, 18(3), 243-266.

Mattingly, J. K., Castellanos, I., & Moberly, A. C. (2019). Nonverbal reasoning as a contributor to sentence recognition outcomes in adults with cochlear implants. Otology & Neurotology: Official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology, 39(10), e956.

Martinez, K., Burgaleta, M., Roman, F. J., Escorial, S., Shih, P. C., Quiroga, M. Á., & Colom, R. (2011). Can fluid intelligence be reduced to "simple" short-term storage? Intelligence, 39(6), 473-480.

McKay, P. F., Doverspike, D., Bowen-Hilton, D., & Martin, Q. D. (2002). Stereotype threat effects on the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices scores of African Americans. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 767-787.

Perrot, A., Gagnon, C., & Bertsch, J. (2009). Physical activity as a moderator of the relationship between aging and inductive reasoning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(2), 393-397.

Raven, J. (1981). Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary scales. Research supplement no. 1: The 1979 British standardisation of the standard progressive matrices and mill hill vocabulary scales, together with comparative data from earlier studies in the UK, US, Canada, Germany and Ireland. Oxford University Press; The Psychological Corporation.

Schmidt, F. T. C., Lindner, C., Etzel, J. M., & Retelsdorf, J. (2020). Self-control outdoes fluid reasoning in explaining vocational and academic performance—but does it? Frontiers in Psychology, 11(May), 1-13.

Takahashi, M., & Overton, W. F. (1996). Formal reasoning in Japanese older adults: The role of metacognitive strategy, task content, and social factors. Journal of Adult Development, 3(2), 81-91.

Tohill, J. M., & Holyoak, K. J. (2000). The impact of anxiety on analogical reasoning. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 21(1), 27-40.

Viskontas, I. V., Morrison, R. G., Holyoak, K. J., Hummel, J. E., & Knowlton, B. J. (2004). Relational integration, inhibition, and analogical reasoning in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 19(4), 581-591.

Wechsler, D., Coalson, D.L. and Raiford, S.E. (2008). WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretive Manual. San Antonio, Texas: Pearson

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