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Reasoning is the cognitive ability that allows us to notice similarities and relationships across contexts. Relational reasoning, or the ability to see connections between multiple concepts, is an important part of this process and is essential to successful Problem Solving.
Reasoning can help us to think abstractly about language and verbal concepts as well as non-verbal concepts, such as patterns.
Reasoning capacity begins to decline in early adulthood, and individuals begin to rely more heavily on Background Knowledge rather than Reasoning abilities to make sense of new contexts. As such, with reduced Reasoning, adults may have more difficulty learning and performing new tasks.