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Process-based Writing


Process-based writing focuses on how learners brainstorm, outline, draft, and revise their writing and is most effective when paired with feedback, especially for English language learners. When teaching Composition, focusing on the process is often helpful to learners as they begin to tackle more nuanced and complex writing tasks. Process-based writing instruction involves a series of steps, including pre-writing activities such as brainstorming and planning, to enhance Metacognition. Learners go through the prewriting process and then create drafts to revise, edit, and reflect upon before creating a finalized version of the task. Research has shown that the writing process is teachable, and instructors can aid learners by explicitly focusing on the individual parts of the process to enhance writing outcomes. Process-based writing in an educational setting allows the instructor and learners to experience the writing process together, rather than simply coming together to evaluate a finished product. Additionally, focusing on the writing process helps learners Self-regulation and increases Motivation.

Use It In Your Learning Environment

Instructors should explicitly teach the writing process through modeling and interact with learners during guided practice to ensure understanding. Instructors can also use graphic organizers to help learners manage each step of the process. When teaching the writing process, instructors can incorporate informal writing tasks, such as journaling, where learners can brainstorm and reflect on their writing and learning. Instructors must be careful to support those whose Primary Language is not English by providing detailed feedback throughout the writing process.

Digital writing programs can have interactive spaces where instructors and peers can communicate with learners as they compose writing tasks. Additionally, writing programs can contain digital graphic organizers and infographic charts to help learners maintain Attention during the writing process. Immediate, personalized feedback can be expedited using digital platforms with notifications to learners that feedback has been received and prompts to read, reflect, and apply the feedback.

Social networking sites provide numerous opportunities for writing, vocabulary development, engaging in debate, peer feedback, collaboration, and self-directed reflection. Learners can benefit from cultural connections, multiple perspectives, collaborative writing, critical thinking, and sharing their learning on blogs, vlogs, wikis, and social media, which is especially supportive for English language learners.