MODEL

Adult Learner

Systems Change
Adult Learner > Strategies

Adult Learner

Select one or more factors to see the strategies that support your chosen factor(s). For each strategy, we provide ideas for how to use it in your learning environment and further resources.

Factors

Adult Literacies

Background Knowledge
Composition
Digital Literacy
Disciplinary Literacy
Foundational Reading Skills
Numeracy
Oral Communication Skills
Problem Solving

Cognition

Attention
Auditory Processing
Cognitive Flexibility
Inhibition
Long-term Memory
Metacognition
Reasoning
Short-term Memory
Speed of Processing
Visual Processing
Working Memory

Social and Emotional Learning

Emotion
Learner Mindset
Motivation
Self-regulation
Social Awareness & Relationship Skills
Stereotype Threat

Learner Background

Adverse Experiences
Hearing
Literacy Environment
Physical Well-being
Primary Language
Safety
Sleep
Social Supports
Socioeconomic Status
Vision

Strategies

Accessible Vocabulary & Syntax

Using language that is accessible and appropriately leveled for each student allows all learners to feel successful and participate in learning.

Annotating

When annotating, learners engage deeply with a text and make their thinking visible while reading, which supports Foundational Reading Skills.

Ask Experts

Experts can answer questions and provide vocabulary, processes, feedback, and scaffolds to help learners deepen their understanding.

Audiobooks

Audiobooks allow learners to hear fluent reading and experience books in a flexible format.

Authentic Audiences & Purposes

When adults can connect and communicate with authentic audiences about their interests and values, learning becomes more personally meaningful and relevant.

Case Studies/Case-based Learning

Case studies support authentic, active learning experiences centered around real world situations that present an account of a particular set of circumstances for learners to engage with.

Check-ins

Beginning meetings with check-ins and maximizing opportunities for informal check-ins, whether live or online, can foster a sense of Belonging while building Social Supports.

Clear Structure & Presentation

When designing instruction for adults, expectations and goals should be clearly outlined to help learners focus on the material and make plans for success.

Communities of Practice

Adult learners can self-organize into groups called communities of practice to engage in longer-term examination of a topic to build deeper understanding.

Competency-based Learning & Assessment

Competency-based learning is self-paced, focused on mastery, and centered around demonstrating learning outcomes and skills rather than where or how they were attained.

Creating Visual Representations

When learners process and express information visually, they are activating more cognitive processes while Problem Solving.

Cultural & Life Experiences Connections

Understanding adults' lived experiences and cultural backgrounds and connecting them to instructional practices helps all learners feel like valued members of the community.

Debate

When preparing for and executing a debate, learners analyze, form, and express verbal arguments, fostering their critical thinking skills, an essential component of Problem Solving.

Error Analysis

Analyzing errors is especially beneficial in helping learners develop a Learner Mindset and critical thinking skills, which are a component of Problem Solving.

Evaluating Sources

Teaching adult learners how to systematically evaluate sources prepares them to navigate information in an increasingly complex, digital world.

Expanding Social Networks

Networking and supporting adult learners in expanding their social networks provide access to additional resources and Social Supports, which can impact their trajectory and Motivation.

Experiential Learning

Experiential learning is learning by doing, which may include self-directed learning activities.

Explaining Their Thinking

Giving learners the opportunity to explain their thinking process aloud helps them to solidify their comprehension, and move knowledge into their Long-term Memory.

Explicit Instruction: Computer Basics

In an increasingly digital world, adults who struggle with using technology can benefit from direct instruction for an array of digital tools.

Explicit Instruction: Internet Search

Teaching learners how to effectively search the internet is critical for helping them learn how to find accurate and relevant information and aids in developing information literacy.

Explicit Instruction: Math Strategies

Direct instruction in math strategies may support some adult learners once conceptual understanding is in place.

Explicit Instruction: Online Reading Strategies

Research shows that, along with traditional reading comprehension strategies, learners use unique strategies to read the non-linear, hyperlinked structure of online texts.

Explicit Instruction: Phonics

Adult learners who are struggling with Foundational Reading Skills, including decoding and phonemic awareness, can benefit from explicitly learning phonics skills in an educational setting.

Explicit Instruction: Vocabulary

Seeing and using new words repeatedly and across contexts is critical for vocabulary acquisition.

Formative Assessment

Formative assessment is "assessment for learning" rather than "assessment of learning".

Foster Growth Mindset

When adults are aware that learning involves effort, mistakes, reflection, and refinement of strategies, they are more resilient when they struggle.

Game-based Learning

Game-based learning is an active learning experience with clear objectives and measurable outcomes designed to be intrinsically game-like.

Goal Setting & Monitoring

Setting overall goals with actionable steps for achievement can help learners feel more confident in their abilities and help minimize procrastination-related behaviors.

Graphic Organizers

Visualizing how ideas fit together helps learners construct meaning and strengthens their recall.

Guided Practice

Opportunities for students to practice skills in context, with instructor support and also independently, helps to move concepts and ideas into Long-term Memory.

Handouts/Online Guides/Visual Reading Aids

Visual reading aids, such as handouts and online guides, help learners to maintain Attention and serve to support the learning process.

Immediate Feedback

Immediate feedback can improve a learner's confidence, self-awareness and enthusiasm for learning, which leads to increased Motivation.

Inquiry-based Learning

Inquiry-based learning is centered around open-ended questions posed by instructors and/or the learners themselves and fosters a Learner Mindset.

Instructor Accessibility

Adult learners benefit from knowing there is an instructor available to provide support as needed, especially during asynchronous learning.

Journaling

Journaling allows learners to reflect on their thinking and feelings, process their learning, and connect new information to what they know and their practical experiences.

Learner Choice

Intentionally incorporating voice and choice into adult learning experiences is critical for making learning meaningful and relevant.

Mentoring/Coaching

Giving learners the opportunity to share their knowledge, skills, and understanding with others strengthens learning and increases Motivation while also building Social Supports.

Metaphors & Analogies

Metaphors and analogies can support learners by helping to form connections and to notice patterns and similarities that promote learning, self-concept, and higher order thinking.

Mindfulness Activities

Mindfulness is a practice to create internal balance and a sense of being present in the moment.

Mnemonic Device

Creating patterns through mnemonic devices, such as acronyms, categorizing items, visual images, or rhyming, supports the development of memories, including learned content knowledge.

Multimedia Projects

For adults, the Composition process can become more robust when learners can express ideas through multiple media, which includes visual, audio, and digital production.

Multimodal Instruction

Instruction and training presented in multiple formats allows learners to activate different cognitive skills and Background Knowledge that are necessary to remember procedural and content information.

Note-taking

Effective note-taking during lectures or reading directs learners' Attention to the relevant information, helping them identify key concepts, understand links between ideas and retain information better in their Long-term Memory.

Observation/Shadowing

The opportunity to observe peers or experts in action or participate in shadowing can provide a unique and authentic learning experience that often involves questioning, metacognitive thinking, and Problem Solving while providing Social Supports.

Pairing Non-examples with Examples

Pairing non-examples with examples helps learners compare and contrast to deepen understanding at both the concept and skill levels.

Peer Discussion

Learning in social contexts has been shown to have significant effects on comprehension of material and retention of new information into Long-term Memory.

Peer Feedback/Peer Review

When learners provide constructive feedback on each other's work, they reflect on their own understanding, learn to give relevant suggestions, receive specific ways to improve, and engage in Metacognition.

Perspective Seeking/Multiple Perspectives

Perspective seeking is different from perspective taking as it involves communication with the purpose of gaining insight into the nuances of alternate views.

Physical Activity

Making space and time for physical activity, through brief movement breaks in the classroom or workplace and incorporating it into daily life, has benefits for the body and mind.

Positive Self-talk

Positive self-talk can support self-efficacy, optimism, Self-regulation, and a Learner Mindset.

Pre-reading Questioning

When instructors ask questions or have learners create questions before introducing a text, they activate interest, increase Motivation, and help them assess what they already know about a given topic.

Problem-based Learning

Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learner-centered multidisciplinary approach focused on real world applications using active learning methods.

Process-based Writing

Process-based writing focuses on how learners brainstorm, outline, draft, and revise their writing and is most effective when paired with feedback, especially for English language learners.

Purposeful Reflection

Reflection can take place throughout learning, supporting critical thinking and Problem Solving skills when learners actively question assumptions, and after learning experiences to support Metacognition.

Quiet Learning Spaces

Creating a quiet space free of distractions is critical for adults to be able to focus on learning.

Real-world Math

When instructors are able to provide context, and connect math concepts to an adult learner's world, math can be seen as relevant and applicable to their daily lives and work- a core aspect of adult Numeracy.

Self-monitoring

When adults monitor their comprehension, performance, and use of strategies when learning they become more invested in their work, build their Metacognition, and actively participate in the process.

Simulations & Immersive Virtual Environments

Simulations and immersive virtual environments provide authentic learning at a level that can spark curiosity and deeper understanding by engaging multiple senses in exploration.

Skills Sprint

Skills sprints are focused, real world learning experiences for teams in which participants learn new skills while directly designing, developing, or delivering something to their organization.

Spaced Learning

Learning and studying information across multiple sessions that are spaced, or distributed in time, can promote learning and long-term retention of both basic and conceptually complex facts and concepts.

Speech-to-text

Speech-to-text takes the input from voice recognition and produces text.

Text Chats

Bringing learners' everyday literacy practices such as text chats into instruction provides regular, low-stakes practice communicating with authentic audiences.

Text-to-speech

Text-to-speech technology reads the words on a screen aloud.

Video Replay Analysis

Analyzing short video clips, replays of important aspects, and videos of oneself applying what has been learned can improve Metacognition and Long-term Memory while fostering a Learner Mindset.

Worked Examples

Analyzing and discussing solutions to problems helps students develop a deeper understanding of Problem Solving processes and Numeracy skills.