Measures and References: Short-term Memory

Return to Short-term Memory factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Children's Memory Scale (CMS) (Cohen, 1997): Assesses Long- and Short-term Memory in verbal, visual, and attention/concentration domains in students five to 16 years old

Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) (Reynolds & Voress, 2007): Measures verbal, nonverbal, and composite memory in people five to 59 years old


Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?. _Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(_11), 417-423.

Berg, D. H. (2008). Working memory and arithmetic calculation in children: The contributory roles of processing speed, short-term memory, and reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 99(4), 288-308.

Cohen, M. J. (1997). Examiner's manual: Children's Memory Scale. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Progress in Brain Research, 169, 323-338.

Dulaney, A., Vasilyeva, M., & O'Dwyer, L. (2015). Individual differences in cognitive resources and elementary school mathematics achievement: Examining the roles of storage and attention. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 55-63.

Farah, M. J., Shera, D. M., Savage, J. H., Betancourt, L., Giannetta, J. M., Brodsky, N., … E.K., Hurt, H. (2006). Childhood poverty: Specific associations with neurocognitive development. Brain Research, 1110, 166-174.

Holmes, J., Adams, J. W., Hamilton, C. J. (2008). The relationship between visuospatial sketchpad capacity and children's mathematical skills. European Journal Of Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 272-289.

Kail, R., & Hall, L. K. (2001). Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory. Memory & Cognition, 29(1), 1-9.

Kane, M. J., Tuholski, S. W., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., Payne, T. W., & Engle, R. W. (2004). The generality of working memory capacity: A latent-variable approach to verbal and visuospatial memory span and reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(2), 189-217.

Koponen, T., Salmi, P., Eklund, K., & Aro, T. (2013). Counting and RAN: Predictors of arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 162.

Pickering, S. J., Gathercole, S. E., Hall, M., & Lloyd, S. A. (2001). Development of memory for pattern and path: Further evidence for the fractionation of visuo-spatial memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A: Human Experimental Psychology, 54(2), 397-420.

Reynolds, C. R., & Voress, J. K. (2007). Test of Memory and Learning (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Sarver, D. E., Rapport, M. D., Ko, M. J., Scanlan, S. W., Raiker, J. S., Altro, T. A., & Bolden, J. (2012). Attention problems, phonological short-term memory, and visuospatial short-term memory: Differential effects on near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 8-19.

Swanson, H. L., Howard, C. B., & Saez, L. (2006). Do different components of working memory underlie different subgroups of reading disabilities? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(3), 252-269.

Swanson, L., & Kim, K. (2007). Working memory, short-term memory, and naming speed as predictors of children's mathematical performance. Intelligence, 35, 151-168.

Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities. Itaska, IL: Riverside Publishing.