Measures and References: Short-term Memory

Return to Short-term Memory factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Children's Memory Scale (CMS) (Cohen, 1997): Assesses Long- and Short-term Memory in verbal, visual, and attention/concentration domains in students aged five to 16

Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) (Reynolds & Voress, 2007): Measures verbal, nonverbal, and composite memory in people aged five to 59

Corsi Block or Block Recall (Pickering & Gathercole, 2001): Measures visuospatial ability using taps on a set of blocks that participants replicate in reverse order


Berg, D. H. (2008). Working memory and arithmetic calculation in children: The contributory roles of processing speed, short-term memory, and reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 99(4), 288-308.

Bull, R., Espy, K. A., & Wiebe, S. A. (2008). Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: Longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 205-228.

Cohen, M. J. (1997). Examiner's manual: Children's Memory Scale. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Dulaney, A., Vasilyeva, M., & O'Dwyer, L. (2015). Individual differences in cognitive resources and elementary school mathematics achievement: Examining the roles of storage and attention. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 55-63.

Holmes, J., Adams, J. W., Hamilton, C. J. (2008). The relationship between visuospatial sketchpad capacity and children's mathematical skills. European Journal Of Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 272-289.

Kail, R., & Hall, L. K. (2001). Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory. Memory & Cognition, 29(1), 1-9.

Koponen, T., Salmi, P., Eklund, K., & Aro, T. (2013). Counting and RAN: Predictors of arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 162.

Passolunghi, M. C., Lanfranchi, S., Altoe, G., & Sollazzo, N. (2015). Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 135, 25-42.

Pickering, S. J., Gathercole, S. E., Hall, M., & Lloyd, S. A. (2001). Development of memory for pattern and path: Further evidence for the fractionation of visuo-spatial memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A: Human Experimental Psychology, 54(2), 397-420.

Reynolds, C., & Bigler, E. (1994). Test of memory and learning. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Sarver, D. E., Rapport, M. D., Ko, M. J., Scanlan, S. W., Raiker, J. S., Altro, T. A., & Bolden, J. (2012). Attention problems, phonological short-term memory, and visuospatial short-term memory: Differential effects on near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 8-19.

Swanson, L., & Kim, K. (2007). Working memory, short-term memory, and naming speed as predictors of children's mathematical performance. Intelligence, 35, 151-168.

Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities. Itaska, IL: Riverside Publishing.