Measures and References: Sleep

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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

Sleep Timing Questionnaire (Monk et al., 2003): Self-report questionnaire to assess sleep-wake patterns on typical weekdays and weekends

Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse et al., 1989): Self-report questionnaire to assess seven dimensions of sleep quality including sleep duration, disturbances, use of sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction.


Ancoli-Israel, S. (1997). Sleep problems in older adults: Putting myths to bed. Geriatrics, 52(1), 20-30.

Anderson, M. C., Green, C., & McCulloch, K. C. (2000). Similarity and inhibition in long-term memory: Evidence for a two-factor theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(5), 1141-1159.

Babson, K. A., & Feldner, M. T. (2010). Temporal relations between sleep problems and both traumatic event exposure and PTSD: A critical review of the empirical literature. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(1), 1-15.

Boccabella, A., & Malouf, J. (2017). How do sleep-related health problems affect functional status according to sex?. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 13(5), 685-692.

Buysse, D. J., Reynolds III, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213.

Chambers, E. C., Pichardo, M. S., & Rosenbaum, E. (2016). Sleep and the housing and neighborhood environment of urban Latino adults living in low-income housing: the AHOME study. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 14(2), 169-184.

Fossum, I. N., Nordnes, L. T., Storemark, S. S., Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2014). The association between use of electronic media in bed before going to sleep and insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, morningness, and chronotype. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 12(5), 343-357.

Harrison, Y., & Horne, J. A. (1997). Sleep deprivation affects speech. Sleep, 20(10), 871-877.

Healthy Sleep. (2007, December 18). Changes in sleep with age.

Lim, J. & Dinges, D. F. (2010). A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep depri-vation on cognitive variables. Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 375-389.

Monk, T. H., Buysse, D. J., Kennedy, K. S., Potts, J. M., DeGrazia, J. M., & Miewald, J. M. (2003). Measuring sleep habits without using a diary: The sleep timing questionnaire. Sleep, 26(2), 208-212.

Okano, K., Kaczmarzyk, J. R., Dave, N., Gabrieli, J. D., & Grossman, J. C. (2019). Sleep quality, duration, and consistency are associated with better academic performance in college students. NPJ Science of Learning, 4(1), 1-5.

Rasch, B., & Born, J. (2013). About sleep's role in memory. Physiological Reviews, 93(2), 681-766.

Schneider, E. L., & Davidson, L. (2003). Physical health and adult well-being. In M. H. Bornstein, L. Davidson, C. L. M. Keyes, & K. A. Moore (Eds.), Crosscurrents in contemporary psychology. Well-being: Positive development across the life course (pp. 407-423). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Simonelli, G., Leanza, Y., Boilard, A., Hyland, M., Augustinavicius, J. L., Cardinali, D. P., ... & Vigo, D. E. (2013). Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty: The effect of a slum housing upgrading program. Sleep, 36(11), 1669-1676.

Stickgold, R., Whidbee, D., Schirmer, B., Patel, V., & Hobson, J. A. (2000). Visual discrimination task improvement: A multi-step process occurring during sleep. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(2), 246-254.

Suni, Eric. (2020, July 31). How much sleep do we really need? National Sleep Foundation.

Wagner, U., Gais, S., Haider, H., Verleger, R. & Born, J. (2004). Sleep inspires insight. Nature 427(6972), 352-355.

Wong, M. L., Lau, E. Y. Y., Wan, J. H. Y., Cheung, S. F., Hui, C. H., & Mok, D. S. Y. (2013). The interplay between sleep and mood in predicting academic functioning, physical health and psychological health: A longitudinal study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74(4), 271-277.