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Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.
Mental Transformation Task (Levine et al., 1999): Assesses Spatial Skills in students aged four to seven
Casey, B. M., Andrews, N., Schindler, H., Kersh, J. E., Samper, A., & Copley, J. (2008). The development of spatial skills through interventions involving block building activities. Cognition and Instruction, 26(3), 269-309.
Cheng, Y., & Mix, K. S. (2014). Spatial training improves children's mathematics ability. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15(1), 2-11.
Cornu, V., Hornung, C., Schiltz, C., & Martin, R. (2017). How do different aspects of spatial skills relate to early arithmetic and number line estimation? Journal of Numerical Cognition, 3(2), 0-59.
Della Sala, S., Gray, C., Baddeley, A., Allamano, N., & Wilson, L. (1999). Pattern span: A tool for unwelding visuo-spatial memory. Neuropsychologia, 37(10), 1189-1199.
Geary, D. C., & Burlingham-Dubree, M. (1989). External validation of the strategy choice model for addition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 47(2), 175-192.
Gunderson, E. A., Ramirez, G., Beilock, S. L., & Levine, S. C. (2012). The relation between spatial skill and early number knowledge: The role of the linear number line. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1229-1241.
Holmes, J., Adams, J. W., Hamilton, C. J. (2008). The relationship between visuospatial sketchpad capacity and children's mathematical skills. European Journal Of Cognitive Psychology, 20(2), 272-289.
Laski, E. V., Casey, B. M., Yu, Q., Dulaney, A., Heyman, M., & Dearing, E. (2013). Spatial skills as a predictor of first grade girls' use of higher level arithmetic strategies. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 123-130.
Lehmann, J., Quaiser-Pohl, C., & Jansen, P. (2014). Correlation of motor skill, mental rotation, and working memory in 3- to 6-year-old children. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11(5), 560-573.
Levine, S., Huttenlocher, J., Taylor, A., & Langrock, A. (1999). Early sex differences in spatial skill. Developmental Psychology, 35(4), 940-949.
Passolunghi, M. C., & Mammarella, I. C. (2010). Spatial and visual working memory ability in children with difficulties in arithmetic word problem solving. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 22(6), 944-963.
Pruden, S. M., Levine, S. C., & Huttenlocher, J. (2011). Children's spatial thinking: Does talk about the spatial world matter? Developmental Science, 14(6), 1417-1430.
Szucs, D., Devine, A., Soltesz, F., Nobes, A., & Gabriel, F. (2014). Cognitive components of a mathematical processing network in 9-year-old children. Developmental Science, 17(4), 506-524.
Ungar, S., Blades, M., & Spencer, C. (1996). The construction of cognitive maps by children with visual impairments. In The construction of cognitive maps (pp. 247-273). Springer, Dordrecht.
Verdine, B. N., Golinkoff, R. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Newcombe, N. S. (2016). Links between spatial and mathematical skills across the preschool years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development.
Verdine, B. N., Irwin, C. M., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2014). Contributions of executive function and spatial skills to preschool mathematics achievement. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 126, 37-51.
Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Zarfaty, Y., Nunes, T., Bryant, P. (2004). The performance of young deaf children in spatial and temporal number tasks, Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9(3), 315-326.
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