Measures and References: Visual Processing

Return to Visual Processing factor page.


Numerous measures exist to gain a full picture of a student's learning strengths and challenges. Following are examples of measures used to assess this Learner Factor. These measures should be administered and interpreted by experienced professionals.

The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration - 6th Edition (Beery et al., 2010): Assesses visual-motor integration, including supplemental tests to assess visual perception and motor coordination, for individuals between 2-100 years old


Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417-423.

Barnhardt, C., Borsting, E., Deland, P., Pham, N., & Vu, T. (2005). Relationship between visual-motor integration and spatial organization of written language and math. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(2), 138-43.

Beery, K. E., Buktenica, N. A., & Beery, N. A. (2010). The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration: Administration, scoring, and teaching manual (6th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: NSC Pearson.

Bullier, J. (2001). Integrated model of visual processing. Brain Research Reviews, 36(2-3), 96-107.

Pieters, S., Desoete, A., Roeyers, H., Vanderswalmen, R., & Van Waelvelde, H. (2012). Behind mathematical learning disabilities: What about visual perception and motor skills? Learning and Individual Differences, 22(4), 498-504.

Rey, A. (1941). L'examen psychologique dans les cas d'encephalopathie traumatique. (Les Problems). Archives de Psychologie, 28, 286-340.

Salillas, E., Basso, D., Baldi, M., Semenza, C., & Vecchi, T. (2008). Motion on numbers: Transcranial magnetic stimulation on the ventral intraparietal sulcus alters both numerical and motion processes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(11), 2129-2138.

Shinn-Cunningham, B. G. (2008). Object-based auditory and visual attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(5), 182-186.

Sutton, G. P., Barchard, K. A., Bello, D. T., Thaler, N. S., Ringdahl, E., Mayfield, J., & Allen, D. N. (2011). Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration performance in children with traumatic brain injury and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 805-809.