Select one or more factors to see the strategies that support your chosen factor(s). For each strategy, we provide ideas for classroom and product application, videos, and further resources.

Mathematics

Cognition

Student Background

Teachers support language development by using and providing vocabulary and syntax that is appropriately leveled (e.g., using simple sentences when introducing complex concepts).

Content that is provided in clear, short chunks can support students' Working Memory.

Building positive and trusting relationships with learners allows them to feel safe; a sense of belonging; and that their academic, cognitive, and social and emotional needs are supported.

Providing math tasks with high cognitive demand conveys high expectations for all students by challenging them to engage in higher-order thinking.

As students solve problems in a group, they learn new strategies and practice communicating their mathematical thinking.

CRA is a sequential instructional approach during which students move from working with concrete materials to creating representational drawings to using abstract symbols.

Students activate more cognitive processes by exploring and representing their understandings in visual form.

Continual use of foundational skills with different problems reinforces a conceptual understanding of math skills.

10 minutes in each math session devoted to building fluent retrieval of basic math facts sets the foundation for learning new concepts.

Knowing the language of math is critical because students must use this language to understand math concepts and determine calculations needed.

Thinking of and about patterns encourages learners to look for and understand the rules and relationships that are critical components of mathematical reasoning.

Teaching students to recognize common problem structures helps them transfer solution methods from familiar to unfamiliar problems.

Discussing strategies for solving mathematics problems after initially letting students attempt to problem solve on their own helps them understand how to organize their mathematical thinking and intentionally tackle problems.

Teaching students how to label, identify, and manage Emotion helps them learn Self-regulation skills.

Overtly encouraging all students to seek support and ask questions creates a safe space for risk-taking and skill development.

Analyzing incorrect worked examples is especially beneficial for helping students develop a conceptual understanding of mathematical processes.

When students explain their thinking process aloud with guidance in response to questions or prompts, they recognize the strategies they use and solidify their understanding.

Writing freely about one's emotions about a specific activity, such as taking a test, can help students cope with negative Emotion, such as math anxiety.

Students are more likely to come to school when families feel like a valued part of the community.

Teachers can help students understand that learning involves effort, mistakes, and reflection by teaching them about their malleable brain and modeling their own learning process.

As students walk through stations working in small groups, the social and physical nature of the learning supports deeper understanding.

Adding motions to complement learning activates more cognitive processes for recall and understanding.

Setting overall goals, as well as smaller goals as steps to reaching them, encourages consistent, achievable progress and helps students feel confident in their skills and abilities.

Attributing results to controllable aspects (strategy and effort) fosters students' beliefs in self.

In guided inquiry, teachers help students use their own language for constructing knowledge by active listening and questioning.

Learning about students' cultures and connecting them to instructional practices helps all students feel like valued members of the community.

Practicing until achieving several error-free attempts is critical for retention.

Having space where students can go supports Self-regulation and individual deliberate practice.

As students work with and process information by discussing, organizing, and sharing it together, they deepen their understanding.

Math centers support learner interests and promote the development of more complex math skills and social interactions.

Rhyming, alliteration, and other sound devices reinforce math skills development by activating the mental processes that promote memory.

When students have meaningful conversations about math and use math vocabulary, they develop the thinking, questioning, and explanation skills needed to master mathematical concepts.

Through short but regular mindfulness activities, students develop their awareness and ability to focus.

Short breaks that include mindfulness quiet the brain to allow for improved thinking and emotional regulation.

Mnemonic devices help students remember mathematical concepts and steps of math and classroom processes.

Multiple tables and chairs on wheels allow for setting up the classroom to support the desired learning outcomes of each activity.

By talking through their thinking at each step of a process, teachers can model what learning looks like.

Teachers sharing math-to-self, math-to-math, and math-to-world connections models this schema building.

Brain breaks that include movement allow learners to refresh their thinking and focus on learning new information.

Instruction in multiple formats allows students to activate different cognitive skills to understand and remember the steps they are to take in their math work.

Multiple display spaces help develop oral language skills as well as Social Awareness & Relationship Skills by allowing groups to share information easily as they work.

Visualizing how ideas fit together helps students construct meaning and strengthens recall.

Providing physical and virtual representations of numbers and math concepts helps activate mental processes.

Easy access to seeing the relationships between numbers promotes Number Sense as students see these connections repeatedly.

Visual representations help students understand what a number represents as well as recognize relationships between numbers.

Multiple writing surfaces promote collaboration by allowing groups to share information easily as they work.

Connecting information to music and dance moves enhances Short-term and Long-term Memory by drawing on auditory processes and the cognitive benefits of physical activity.

Having students teach their knowledge, skills, and understanding to their classmates strengthens learning.

When students reframe negative thoughts and tell themselves kind self-statements, they practice positive self-talk.

Maintaining consistent classroom routines and schedules ensures that students are able to trust and predict what will happen next.

Decreasing extra audio input provides a focused learning environment.

When teachers connect math to the students' world, students see how math is relevant and applicable to their daily lives.

Students deepen their understanding and gain confidence in their learning when they explain to and receive feedback from others.

Providing space and time for students to reflect is critical for moving what they have learned into Long-term Memory.

Response devices boost engagement by encouraging all students to answer every question.

Math games and manipulatives for vision differences support math development for learners with visual needs.

Children's literature can be a welcoming way to help students learn math vocabulary and concepts.

Multicultural resources, such as posters with different types of people and word problems based in different settings, allow all students to see themselves in their math work.

When students engage in a dialogue with themselves, they are able to orient, organize, and focus their thinking.

When students monitor their comprehension, behavior, or use of strategies, they build their Metacognition.

Incorporating multiple senses with strategies like chewing gum, using a fidget, and sitting on a ball chair supports focus and Attention.

Sentence frames or stems can serve as language support to enrich students' participation in academic discussions.

Providing students a voice in their learning is critical for making learning meaningful.

When students create their own number and word problems, they connect math concepts to their background knowledge and lived experiences.

Providing ways for students to meet their individual temperature needs supports focus and Self-regulation.

Transforming written text into audio activates different parts of the brain to support learning.

Students deepen their math understanding as they use and hear others use specific math language in informal ways.

Tossing a ball, beanbag, dice, or other small object activates physical focus in support of mental focus.

Spaces that are structured, organized, and clean provide increased room for collaboration and active learning.

Untimed tests provide students the opportunity to flexibly and productively work with numbers, further developing their problem-solving abilities.

Having students verbally repeat information such as instructions ensures they have heard and supports remembering.

Providing visuals to introduce, support, or review instruction activates more cognitive processes to support learning.

Visual supports, like text magnification, colored overlays, and guided reading strip, help students focus and properly track as they read.

Wait time, or think time, of three or more seconds after posing a question increases how many students volunteer and the length and accuracy of their responses.

A word wall helps build the Math Communication and vocabulary skills that are necessary for problem solving.

Analyzing and discussing solved problems helps students develop a deeper understanding of abstract mathematical processes.

Writing that encourages students to articulate their understanding of math concepts or explain math ideas helps deepen students' mathematical understanding.

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Math 3-6

Students can work with number combinations using different strategies to build a network of connections between numbers.

- These networks will allow students to efficiently and flexibly use arithmetic number combinations during problem solving.

Students’ Math Flexibility—the ability to shift between representations of numbers and between problem-solving strategies—supports a deeper understanding of mathematical concepts and procedures.

- Allowing students to try problems on their own and then discussing strategies can help them compare and choose one problem-solving strategy over another.

As math becomes more complex, students need to increasingly talk and think through their process when working on problems.

- Metacognition develops through childhood, allowing students to use prior knowledge to make predictions, plan, monitor, and adjust their problem-solving strategies.

Math Communication can also support these metacognitive processes.

- Talking through their thinking by themselves allows students to better reason and reflect on their steps, while communicating with teachers and peers to justify their process encourages collaboration along with a deeper understanding of the content.

Students’ positive Math Mindset can increase their engagement with math learning and help them see math as meaningful.

- Students’ Cognitive Flexibility allows them to more readily see value in, and adapt their ideas about the role of math in the real world.

Increasing students’ feelings of confidence in their ability to do math can also support their Self-regulation as they set more challenging goals for themselves.

- When students create their own problems they can tackle challenging problems and are better able to connect math concepts to their own experiences and interests.

Planning, communicating, and reflecting about math helps build a deeper understanding.

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