Hover to see how Factors connect to Math Communication. Then click connected Factors to explore strategies related to multiple Factors.
Language and literacy skills support many aspects of math problem solving. Additionally, students need advanced language skills to understand and communicate about math in classroom discussions. Students with stronger language skills are more likely to experience better math outcomes.
Many of the language skills that are critical for early reading, writing, and math continue to be important for math success in later grades. These include Vocabulary, Phonological Processing, and Verbal Reasoning, which support a variety of math outcomes.
Additionally, as students get older, they must be able to use discussion skills to engage with peers and teachers to explain how they solved a problem and comment on other methods. These skills also include justifying their approach and asking questions of their peers. Math Learning Environments that encourage this type of Math Communication improve students' math learning across student populations, encouraging equity and positive student Emotions.
Visit the literacy model to explore many of these language-related Factors.
Teachers support language development by using and providing vocabulary and syntax that is appropriately leveled (e.g., using simple sentences when introducing complex concepts).
Providing math tasks with high cognitive demand conveys high expectations for all students by challenging them to engage in higher-order thinking.
As students solve problems in a group, they learn new strategies and practice communicating their mathematical thinking.
Students activate more cognitive processes by exploring and representing their understandings in visual form.
Analyzing incorrect worked examples is especially beneficial for helping students develop a conceptual understanding of mathematical processes.
As students walk through stations working in small groups, the social and physical nature of the learning supports deeper understanding.
Teachers sharing math-to-self, math-to-math, and math-to-world connections models this schema building.
Visual representations help students understand what a number represents as well as recognize relationships between numbers.
When teachers connect math to the students' world, students see how math is relevant and applicable to their daily lives.
Children's literature can be a welcoming way to help students learn math vocabulary and concepts.
Multicultural resources, such as posters with different types of people and word problems based in different settings, allow all students to see themselves in their math work.
Sentence frames or stems can serve as language support to enrich students' participation in academic discussions.
When students create their own number and word problems, they connect math concepts to their background knowledge and lived experiences.
When students explain their thinking process aloud, they recognize the strategies they or others use and solidify their understanding.
Providing visuals to introduce, support, or review instruction activates more cognitive processes to support learning.
Wait time, or think time, of three or more seconds after posing a question increases how many students volunteer and the length and accuracy of their responses.
Analyzing and discussing solved problems helps students develop a deeper understanding of abstract mathematical processes.
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