Hover to see how factors connect to Stereotype Threat. Then click connected factors to explore strategies related to multiple factors.
Many stereotypes exist about the academic performance of learners based on categories such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status. Stereotype Threat suggests that people can underperform in many academic areas, including learning to read and write, when faced with this prospect of being judged.
Stereotype Threat occurs when a negative stereotype that exists in a culture about a group results in suboptimal academic performance by members of that group. This can impact performance even in classrooms where the learner does not personally experience prejudiced behavior toward them by teachers or peers. This is particularly true on tests where students are told the test is diagnostic of their intellectual abilities. Also, individuals who do not believe the stereotype is true about their group will often still experience the negative effects of Stereotype Threat.
People can hold two types of stereotypes:
In the United States, Stereotype Threat impacts literacy for multiple groups:
Students' awareness of stereotypes about different groups increases with age, and students who are from groups that are often subject to negative academic stereotypes are even more aware of those stereotypes than students from non-stereotyped groups.
Students practice making and finding meaning in their reading through a book club model.
Building positive and trusting relationships with learners allows them to feel safe; a sense of belonging; and that their academic, cognitive, and social and emotional needs are supported.
Students are more likely to come to school when families feel like a valued part of the community.
Teachers can help students understand that learning involves effort, mistakes, and reflection by teaching them about their malleable brain and modeling their own learning process.
Providing feedback that focuses on the process of developing skills conveys the importance of effort and motivates students to persist when learning.
Learning about students' cultures and connecting them to instructional practices helps all students feel like valued members of the community, which improves Motivation.
Journaling allows students to reflect on their thinking and feelings, process their learning, and connect new information to what they know.
Through short but regular mindfulness activities, students develop their awareness and ability to focus.
Short breaks that include mindfulness quiet the brain to allow for improved thinking and emotional regulation.
By sharing their own reading and writing, teachers can create a literacy community that supports students in finding meaning in their own work.
When students read models of the type of writing they are doing, they can identify effective elements to incorporate in their writing.
Providing space and time for students to reflect is critical for moving what they have learned into Long-term Memory.
Multicultural and diverse books are critical for supporting all students.
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