MODEL

Reading PK-3

Systems Change
Reading PK-3

About This Model

The goals for students’ reading skills in Grades PK-3 include reading comprehension where learners fully understand the intended meaning. Understanding the Learner Factors and strategies that impact reading and how they connect to each other can help you build tools and lessons that support all learners.

Our research highlights several key themes about teaching and learning Reading at the PK-3 level

Early language experiences lay the foundation for reading.

Reading development is rooted in children’s early language experiences, nurtured by their Home Literacy Environment.

  • A stimulating environment with read-alouds from a rich library is related to higher levels of children's Motivation.

Building students’ Vocabulary and Background Knowledge is key to supporting comprehension of both fiction and non-fiction texts.

Students develop the building blocks for reading.

Children use their Alphabet Knowledge and Phonological Awareness to start Decoding—the ability to sound out words.

  • Explicit phonics instruction, which helps learners figure out unfamiliar words, can be combined with whole language approaches to bring these skills together with meaningful texts.

Reading fluency—students’ ability to read quickly, accurately, and expressively—develops along with their Sight Recognition and confidence.

  • Daily reviews and classroom activities such as word sorts can help students recognize patterns and become independent readers.

Supporting cognitive abilities can enhance learning.

Students’ Working Memory and Verbal Reasoning support their reading comprehension by helping them make inferences and connections.

Young students may also need support in sustaining their Attention for learning.

The Research Behind This Model

To create each Learner Variability Project Learner Model, we follow a systematic methodology led by our expert researchers. The process is also overseen by an advisory board of leading content area and learning sciences experts.

Advisory Board for Reading PK-3

These leading researchers supported the development of our Reading PK-3 Model and are a source of continued suggestions for improvement.

Carol McDonald Connor, Ph.D.

Chancellor's Professor, University of California: Irvine School of Education

Jeannette Mancilla-Martinez, Ed.D.

Associate Professor, Vanderbilt University Peabody College of Education and Human Development

Bruce McCandliss, Ph.D.

Professor, Stanford University Graduate School of Education

Dave Paunesku, Ph.D.

Co-Founder of the Stanford University Project for Education Research that Scales (PERTS)

Todd Rose, Ph.D.

Lecturer on Education and Director of the Mind, Brain, and Education Program, Harvard University, and co-founder of Populace
Reading PK-3

Early language experiences lay the foundation for reading.

Reading development is rooted in children’s early language experiences, nurtured by their Home Literacy Environment.

  • A stimulating environment with read-alouds from a rich library is related to higher levels of children's Motivation.

Building students’ Vocabulary and Background Knowledge is key to supporting comprehension of both fiction and non-fiction texts.

Students develop the building blocks for reading.

Children use their Alphabet Knowledge and Phonological Awareness to start Decoding—the ability to sound out words.

  • Explicit phonics instruction, which helps learners figure out unfamiliar words, can be combined with whole language approaches to bring these skills together with meaningful texts.

Reading fluency—students’ ability to read quickly, accurately, and expressively—develops along with their Sight Recognition and confidence.

  • Daily reviews and classroom activities such as word sorts can help students recognize patterns and become independent readers.

Supporting cognitive abilities can enhance learning.

Students’ Working Memory and Verbal Reasoning support their reading comprehension by helping them make inferences and connections.

Young students may also need support in sustaining their Attention for learning.

Next:

Students develop the building blocks for reading.

View Theme 2

Next:

Supporting cognitive abilities can enhance learning.

View Theme 3

Next:

Early language experiences lay the foundation for reading.

View Theme 1