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Reading PK-3

Systems Change
Reading PK-3 > Factors > Long-term Memory

Long-term Memory

Factor Connections

Hover to see how factors connect to Long-term Memory. Then click connected factors to explore strategies related to multiple factors.

Long-term Memory can store information indefinitely. We can move skills and knowledge into Long-term Memory by repeatedly practicing. When students have reading skills, Background Knowledge, and Vocabulary in their Long-Term Memory, they have the tools they need to tackle any text.

Main Ideas

When short-term memories are rehearsed, they become consolidated and move to Long-term Memory, where they are available for use in other activities.

Explicit (Declarative) Long-term Memory stores the memories that can be consciously remembered.

  • Episodic Memory is for the storage of daily personal experiences and specific events in time, such as what we ate for breakfast yesterday.
  • Semantic Memory is for memories of factual/general knowledge about the world, such as Tokyo is in Japan. The time and place this knowledge was learned is not typically known.

Implicit (Nondeclarative) Long-term Memory stores the memories that do not require conscious thought.

  • Procedural Memory involves learning a sequence of actions, such as riding a bike. These are automatically retrieved and used for doing these tasks.
  • Emotional Memory involves a change in how stimuli are approached based on a past negative or positive experience, such as avoiding food that previously made one ill.

Schemas exist in Long-term Memory as an organizational system for our current knowledge and provide a framework for adding future understanding. New information that comes into our Long-term Memory may be more readily encoded in memory when it is consistent with a current schema making learning easier when we have the appropriate Background Knowledge as context.

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