Literacy 4-6

Systems Change
Literacy 4-6 > Factors > Foundational Writing Skills

Foundational Writing Skills

Factor Connections

Hover to see how factors connect to Foundational Writing Skills. Then click connected factors to explore strategies related to multiple factors.

How Foundational Writing Skills connects to...

Writing involves many Foundational Writing Skills, including punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and writing speed. As these skills become automatic, students can use their cognitive resources to focus on other writing processes and the content of what they are writing. In this way, mastering these skills is a critical step towards writing fluency.

Main Ideas

Foundational Writing Skills include:

  • Punctuation: Using conventional marks, such as commas, periods, and question marks, to properly divide sentences and make one's intended meaning clear
  • Capitalization: Properly capitalizing letters using the conventions of the written language (e.g., the first letter of a sentence in English)
  • Spelling: Writing words with the correct spelling. Students initially learn to spell words within their oral Vocabulary then learn conventional spelling rules that allow them to quickly learn to spell new words. Spelling develops through several stages within the first four to five years of formal schooling and transitions from reliance on knowledge of speech sounds (phonemes) to orthographic knowledge (knowledge of written language).
  • Handwriting Fluency and Typing Speed: Includes both handwriting legibility and speed and typing speed. These skills are essential for developing writers because research shows better handwriting fluency and typing speed are associated with higher quality writing composition. As students progress throughout elementary school, their handwriting fluency and typing speed is expected to increase.

Learn More

View Measures and References