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Cognitive Flexibility, a component of executive functioning, is the ability to think about multiple concepts, either at the same time or switching between them. This helps us adapt our behavior to effectively handle changes in our environment, including new task demands. Cognitive Flexibility has been shown to support reading comprehension, writing proficiency, and Numeracy skills.
Cognitive Flexibility can also be called attention shifting or task switching, which involves adaptively shifting away from one idea or component of a task and responding or attending to something new. This is important for Digital Literacy as navigating texts online often requires following hyperlinks and moving between multiple tabs and windows.
Cognitive Flexibility can help adults direct cognitive resources, make decisions involving multiple tasks, and modify behavior to adapt to different situations at once. In many real-life situations, including while working, adults must consider and switch between different strategies and behaviors, for example, being able to effectively speak to someone on the phone and address a text message or email simultaneously. Multitasking skills can aid in minimizing task-related stress as learners can shift their focus from distractions and attend to more productive behavior.
When annotating, learners engage deeply with a text and make their thinking visible while reading, which supports Foundational Reading Skills.
Experts can answer questions and provide vocabulary, processes, feedback, and scaffolds to help learners deepen their understanding.
Case studies support authentic, active learning experiences centered around real world situations that present an account of a particular set of circumstances for learners to engage with.
When learners process and express information visually, they are activating more cognitive processes while Problem Solving.
When preparing for and executing a debate, learners analyze, form, and express verbal arguments, fostering their critical thinking skills, an essential component of Problem Solving.
Analyzing errors is especially beneficial in helping learners develop a Learner Mindset and critical thinking skills, which are a component of Problem Solving.
Teaching adult learners how to systematically evaluate sources prepares them to navigate information in an increasingly complex, digital world.
Networking and supporting adult learners in expanding their social networks provide access to additional resources and Social Supports, which can impact their trajectory and Motivation.
Experiential learning is learning by doing, which may include self-directed learning activities.
Giving learners the opportunity to explain their thinking process aloud helps them to solidify their comprehension, and move knowledge into their Long-term Memory.
Formative assessment is "assessment for learning" rather than "assessment of learning".
Game-based learning is an active learning experience with clear objectives and measurable outcomes designed to be intrinsically game-like.
Setting overall goals with actionable steps for achievement can help learners feel more confident in their abilities and help minimize procrastination-related behaviors.
Immediate feedback can improve a learner's confidence, self-awareness and enthusiasm for learning, which leads to increased Motivation.
Inquiry-based learning is centered around open-ended questions posed by instructors and/or the learners themselves and fosters a Learner Mindset.
Giving learners the opportunity to share their knowledge, skills, and understanding with others strengthens learning and increases Motivation while also building Social Supports.
Metaphors and analogies can support learners by helping to form connections and to notice patterns and similarities that promote learning, self-concept, and higher order thinking.
Mindfulness is a practice to create internal balance and a sense of being present in the moment.
For adults, the Composition process can become more robust when learners can express ideas through multiple media, which includes visual, audio, and digital production.
Effective note-taking during lectures or reading directs learners' Attention to the relevant information, helping them identify key concepts, understand links between ideas and retain information better in their Long-term Memory.
The opportunity to observe peers or experts in action or participate in shadowing can provide a unique and authentic learning experience that often involves questioning, metacognitive thinking, and Problem Solving while providing Social Supports.
Pairing non-examples with examples helps learners compare and contrast to deepen understanding at both the concept and skill levels.
Learning in social contexts has been shown to have significant effects on comprehension of material and retention of new information into Long-term Memory.