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When adolescents enter middle school, reading and writing become increasingly centered around different disciplines. Content specific discourses require students to learn the varying conventions of communication to effectively comprehend content and reinforce understanding. Adolescents also become more capable of creating their own discipline-specific texts such as arguments, narratives, proofs, or lab reports.
As middle and high school content becomes more diverse and comprehensive, adolescents need to develop varied reading and writing skills. Some examples of specific conventions within the disciplines in middle and high school include:
Foundational reading and writing skills become more sophisticated as students access higher level and multimedia texts. These skills are also increasingly important for completing tasks using online resources, which require the ability to locate and evaluate digital information from multiple sources. Those students who have better digital navigation skills may also learn content knowledge more efficiently.