Hover to see how Factors connect to Emotion. Then click connected Factors to explore strategies related to multiple Factors.
Emotions are complex psychological states stemming from our positive and negative experiences. They can affect our minds and bodies and therefore can support or hinder learning. Feeling safe and accepted has particular impact on learning, as anxiety can overtax the brain, making it harder for a student to reason with numbers and solve math problems.
Several aspects of Emotion can drive mathematical development:
Evidence suggests that Emotion knowledge is vital for Emotion regulation, and Emotion regulation impacts many academic skills, including the development of math skills.
Students' positive (e.g., enjoyment) or negative (e.g., frustration, anger) emotional reactions during and after they've completed math tasks can also contribute to their Math Mindset and Motivation to engage. Math anxiety is a specific Emotion associated with discomfort around doing math and can negatively impact math performance and self-efficacy. Math anxiety increases from about sixth grade to ninth grade, when it peaks. Guiding students to reframe their struggles with math as normal can help shift their mindsets and boost their self-efficacy.
Content that is provided in clear, short chunks can support students' Working Memory.
As students solve problems in a group, they learn new strategies and practice communicating their mathematical thinking.
Students activate more cognitive processes by exploring and representing their understandings in visual form.
Teaching students how to label, identify, and manage Emotion helps them learn Self-regulation skills.
Overtly encouraging all students to seek support and ask questions creates a safe space for risk-taking and skill development.
Teachers can help students understand that learning involves effort, mistakes, and reflection by teaching them about their malleable brain and modeling their own learning process.
As students walk through stations working in small groups, the social and physical nature of the learning supports deeper understanding.
Attributing results to controllable aspects (strategy and effort) fosters students' beliefs in self.
Learning about students' cultures and connecting them to instructional practices helps all students feel like valued members of the community.
Having space where students can go supports Self-regulation and individual deliberate practice.
Multiple tables and chairs on wheels allow for setting up the classroom to support the desired learning outcomes of each activity.
Teachers sharing math-to-self, math-to-math, and math-to-world connections models this schema building.
Multiple display spaces help develop oral language skills as well as Social Awareness & Relationship Skills by allowing groups to share information easily as they work.
Multiple writing surfaces promote collaboration by allowing groups to share information easily as they work.
Maintaining consistent classroom routines and schedules ensures that students are able to trust and predict what will happen next.
Students are more likely to come to school when families feel like a valued part of the community.
When teachers connect math to the students' world, students see how math is relevant and applicable to their daily lives.
Response devices boost engagement by encouraging all students to answer every question.
Children's literature can be a welcoming way to help students learn math vocabulary and concepts.
Multicultural resources, such as posters with different types of people and word problems based in different settings, allow all students to see themselves in their math work.
Sentence frames or stems can serve as language support to enrich students' participation in academic discussions.
Providing students a voice in their learning is critical for making learning meaningful.
When students create their own number and word problems, they connect math concepts to their background knowledge and lived experiences.
Spaces that are structured, organized, and clean provide increased room for collaboration and active learning.
Untimed tests provide students the opportunity to flexibly and productively work with numbers, further developing their problem-solving abilities.
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