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Literacy 4-6

Systems Change
Literacy 4-6 > Factors > Long-term Memory

Long-term Memory

Factor Connections

Hover to see how Factors connect to Long-term Memory. Then click connected Factors to explore strategies related to multiple Factors.

Long-term Memory can store information indefinitely. We can move skills and knowledge into Long-term Memory by repeatedly practicing and using them. The Background Knowledge and Vocabulary stored in Long-term Memory provide students with a strong foundation for their reading and writing assignments.

Main Ideas

When short-term memories are rehearsed, they become consolidated and move to Long-term Memory.

Explicit (Declarative) Long-term Memory stores the memories that can be consciously remembered.

  • Episodic Memory is for the storage of daily personal experiences and specific events in time, such as what we ate for breakfast yesterday.
  • Semantic Memory is for memories of factual/general knowledge about the world, such as Tokyo is in Japan. The time and place this knowledge was learned is not typically known.

Implicit (Nondeclarative) Long-term Memory stores the memories that do not require conscious thought.

  • Procedural Memory involves learning a sequence of actions, such as riding a bike. These are automatically retrieved and used for doing these tasks.
  • Emotional Memory involves a change in how stimuli are approached based on a past positive or negative experience, such as students being inspired to write more creative stories after a teacher praises the ideas in their writing.

Schemas exist in Long-term Memory as an organizational system for our current knowledge and provide a framework for adding future understanding. New information that comes into our Long-term Memory may be more readily encoded in memory when it is consistent with a current schema making learning easier when we have the appropriate Background Knowledge as context.

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