Hover to see how Factors connect to Adverse Experiences. Then click connected Factors to explore strategies related to multiple Factors.
The trauma that comes from experiencing adversity in childhood releases stress hormones that can lead to changes in the body and brain. These changes during this critical time of development can have negative consequences on academic achievement, including learning to do math. However, it is possible that children's brains, which allow a high degree of neural reorganization or plasticity, can compensate for the changes, which may support recovery.
Adverse experiences include:
The 2014 National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence found that 37.3% of youth experienced a physical assault, most often by siblings and peers, and 15.2% of children were maltreated by a caregiver. Overall, according to the 2012 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, nearly half (46%) had at least one adverse experience, with 11% experiencing three or more.
These experiences can result in long-term changes to health, behavior, social skills, and brain structure and functioning that can have far-reaching negative impacts on academic outcomes. They may also result in additional trauma through the loss of Social Supports and feelings of Safety.
However, promising research into neuroplasticity has shown that children benefit from increased brain plasticity, as their brain processes seem to be less well organized than in adults. There is significant variability in children's paths to recovery from trauma, so more research in this area can contribute important insights into interventions and recovery.
Teachers support language development by using and providing vocabulary and syntax that is appropriately leveled (e.g., using simple sentences when introducing complex concepts).
Content that is provided in clear, short chunks can support students' Working Memory.
Providing math tasks with high cognitive demand conveys high expectations for all students by challenging them to engage in higher-order thinking.
As students solve problems in a group, they learn new strategies and practice communicating their mathematical thinking.
Students activate more cognitive processes by exploring and representing their understandings in visual form.
Thinking of and about patterns encourages learners to look for and understand the rules and relationships that are critical components of mathematical reasoning.
Teaching students to recognize common problem structures helps them transfer solution methods from familiar to unfamiliar problems.
Discussing strategies for solving mathematics problems after initially letting students attempt to problem solve on their own helps them understand how to organize their mathematical thinking and intentionally tackle problems.
Teaching students how to label, identify, and manage Emotion helps them learn Self-regulation skills.
Overtly encouraging all students to seek support and ask questions creates a safe space for risk-taking and skill development.
Analyzing incorrect worked examples is especially beneficial for helping students develop a conceptual understanding of mathematical processes.
As students walk through stations working in small groups, the social and physical nature of the learning supports deeper understanding.
Having space where students can go supports Self-regulation and individual deliberate practice.
Math games allow students to practice many math skills in a fun, applied context.
Multiple tables and chairs on wheels allow for setting up the classroom to support the desired learning outcomes of each activity.
Multiple display spaces help develop oral language skills as well as Social Awareness & Relationship Skills by allowing groups to share information easily as they work.
Visualizing how ideas fit together helps students construct meaning and strengthens recall.
Visual representations help students understand what a number represents as well as recognize relationships between numbers.
Multiple writing surfaces promote collaboration by allowing groups to share information easily as they work.
Maintaining consistent classroom routines and schedules ensures that students are able to trust and predict what will happen next.
Students are more likely to come to school when families feel like a valued part of the community.
When teachers connect math to the students' world, students see how math is relevant and applicable to their daily lives.
Children's literature can be a welcoming way to help students learn math vocabulary and concepts.
Multicultural resources, such as posters with different types of people and word problems based in different settings, allow all students to see themselves in their math work.
Sentence frames or stems can serve as language support to enrich students' participation in academic discussions.
Providing ways for students to adjust sound level supports individual auditory needs.
Providing students a voice in their learning is critical for making learning meaningful.
When students create their own number and word problems, they connect math concepts to their background knowledge and lived experiences.
Providing ways for students to meet their individual temperature needs supports focus and Self-regulation.
When students explain their thinking process aloud, they recognize the strategies they or others use and solidify their understanding.
Spaces that are structured, organized, and clean provide increased room for collaboration and active learning.
Having students verbally repeat information such as instructions ensures they have heard and supports remembering.
Providing visuals to introduce, support, or review instruction activates more cognitive processes to support learning.
Wait time, or think time, of three or more seconds after posing a question increases how many students volunteer and the length and accuracy of their responses.
Analyzing and discussing solved problems helps students develop a deeper understanding of abstract mathematical processes.
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